Many world leaders are gathering in Madrid, Spain to discuss how to reduce the world's temperatures. As they meet, China is expected to receive a lot of attention. China is the largest producer of carbon gases linked to rising temperatures.
许多世界领导人聚集在西班牙马德里，讨论如何降低世界温度。 当他们见面时，中国将受到广泛关注。 中国是与气温上升有关的最大的碳气体生产国。
Development and Energy Mix
China burns about half the coal used in the world each year. Coal is a fossil fuel that releases carbon dioxide and other gases when it is burned.
Between 2000 and 2018, China's yearly carbon gas emissions increased by nearly two hundred percent. China now releases about 30 percent of the world's total.
However, China is also the leading market for solar energy devices, wind turbines and electric vehicles. It builds about two-thirds of the world's solar cells, which create electricity from sunlight.
Kevin Tu is with the Center on Global Energy Policy at Columbia University and works in Beijing. "We are witnessing many contradictions in China's energy development," he said. "It's the largest coal market and the largest clean energy market in the world."
涂凯文（Kevin Tu）在哥伦比亚大学全球能源政策研究中心工作，在北京工作。 他说：“我们目睹了中国能源发展中的许多矛盾。” “这是世界上最大的煤炭市场和最大的清洁能源市场。”
But China's government notes that the country's yearly economic growth has slowed to about six percent. That is China's lowest level of growth in 25 years. Chinese officials are increasing their support for coal and other heavy industries. That is because those industries are important parts of China's energy system and economy. At the same time, the country is reducingsubsidies for renewable energy.
Recent media reports and satellite pictures suggest that China is building or planning to complete new coal power centers with a total electricity production of 148 gigawatts. That number is nearly equal to all the electricity produced by coal in the European Union. That estimate comes from Global Energy Monitor, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco.
Separately, investment in China's renewable energy industries dropped almost 40 percent in the first half of 2019 compared with the same period last year. That information comes from Bloomberg New Energy Finance, a research organization.
最近的媒体报道和卫星图片显示，中国正在建设或计划建造新的燃煤发电中心，总发电量为148吉瓦。这个数字几乎等于欧盟煤炭生产的所有电力。该估算来自位于旧金山的非营利组织Global Energy Monitor。
Last week in Beijing, China's vice minister of ecology and environment, Zhao Yingmin, spoke to reporters. He said energy resources that are not based on carbon already make up 14.3 percent of the country's electricity production. He did not say if China would promise to lower its emissions targets anytime soon.
"We are still faced with challenges of developing our economy, improving people's livelihoods," he said.
上周，中国生态与环境部副部长赵应民在北京对记者讲话。 他说，不依靠碳的能源已经占该国发电量的14.3％。 他没有说中国是否会承诺尽快降低其排放目标。
China and the Environment: Difficult Issues
Critics say China is the world's biggest producer of gases linked to climate change. Supporters say China is the biggest producer of clean energy equipment. However, both claims are somewhat misleading.
批评人士说，中国是与气候变化有关的全球最大的天然气生产国。 支持者说，中国是最大的清洁能源设备生产国。 但是，这两种说法都有一定的误导性。
"China has a really mixed record. On the one hand, it's seen rapidly rising emissions over the past two decades," notes Jonas Nahm, an energy expert at Johns Hopkins University. "On the other hand, it's shown it's able to innovatearound manufacturing — and make new energy technologies available at scale, faster and cheaper," he said.
约翰·霍普金斯大学能源专家乔纳斯·纳姆（Jonas Nahm）指出：“中国的记录确实好坏参半。一方面，过去二十年来，排放量迅速上升。” 他说：“另一方面，这表明它能够围绕制造进行创新，并且可以大规模，更快，更便宜地提供新的能源技术。”
Bloomberg New Energy Finance says China's manufacturing helped bring down the cost of solar panels by 80 percent between 2008 and 2013. Prices for wind turbines and lithium-ion batteries also dropped sharply because of Chinese manufacturers.
"If we have any chance to meet climate targets, we have to do a lot by 2030 — and we won't be able to do it without China's clean-energy supply chain," Nahm said.
Words in This Story：
turbine– n.a tall structure that has large blades attached to an engine that is used to produce electricity from wind energy
fossil fuel –n. carbon based fuel formed from dead plants and animals
cell -- n.a device for turning light (such as sunlight) into electricity
contradiction -- n.a difference or disagreement between two things
subsidy – n.money that is paid usually by a government to keep the price of a product or service low or to help a business or organization to continue to function
emissions –n. something that is released into the atmosphere
challenges –n. difficulties, hard issues to solve
livelihood -- n.a way of earning money in order to live
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