Now, the VOA Learning English program Words and Their Stories.
Each week, we explore the English language. We take a close look at words and expressions. We not only define the terms, we also give examples on when and how to use them.
On today's show, we talk about the word dozen. By definition, a dozen can mean specifically 12 of anything.
In baking, for example, if you bake a dozen cookies, you baked 12. Most recipes for cupcakes and cookies are based on baking 12 of them. However, the amount in a baker's dozen is 13.
例如在烘烤中，如果你烤了一打饼干，意思就是烤了12块饼干。大多数纸杯蛋糕和饼干的配方都是基于烘烤12个。然而，a baker's dozen（面包师的一打）的数量是指13个。
You may be asking, "why?"
Encyclopedia Britannica explains that in "medieval England there were laws that related the price of bread to the price of the wheat used to make it." If bakers did not give their customers the correct amount, they could get fined or worse -- beat! So, they would bake a little extra just to be sure.
Now, that is a specific way to use the word "dozen." But people also use the word "dozen" in a general way. Then, it simply means a lot. So, if you say you have dozens of friends or dozens of job offers – it does not mean you that have counted them. But it does mean you are pretty lucky!
So those are the two meanings of the word "dozen."
In English, we use the word in an expression that describes something not so special. That term is a dime a dozen. This means that something is very easy to find or ordinary.
在英语中，我们把这个单词用于一句描述常见物品的表达中。这个术语就是a dime a dozen。它意思是指很容易找到或者非常普通的东西。
"Ordinary" is one of the many synonyms for "dime a dozen." Something that is a dime a dozen could also be called commonplace or typical.
A dime a dozen
Now, earlier I said that a dozen is 12 of anything. But with this expression, the dozen could mean a dozen of eggs. Usually eggs are sold in a small box, or container, by the dozen. And buying a dozen eggs for a dime is really cheap.
As you probably know, a dime is only worth 10 cents, or one-tenth of a dollar. These days, you cannot buy much with that. In fact, today even traditional dime store candy costs more than a dime. So, anything that is "a dime a dozen" is very common or also very cheap.
You can use the term dime a dozen for just about anything.
你可以把dime a dozen这个术语用于任何东西。
These two friends are on vacation at the beach. Let's hear how they use this expression.
(sighs) I just love the seashore. I could stay here and look at the ocean all day.
Me, too. Hey, look out there! Is that a hot air balloon?
Not just one. There are many hot air balloons! It must be a race or something! Amazing!
They're going to fly by us just as the sun sets.
That is going to be breathtaking! Get your camera ready!
I can't. I'm supposed to meet a friend for ice cream.
If you go now, you'll miss the balloons flying by.
But this friend is a guy ... a really cute guy.
Cute guys are a dime a dozen! But watching dozens of hot air balloons fly over the ocean as the sun sets is a once-in-a-lifetime experience.
You're right. What am I thinking? Look! Here they come now ...
Things that are a dime a dozen are also easy to replace. Because Washington, D.C. is such a political town, political experts are a dime a dozen.
Word in This Story：
specifically– adv.in a definite and exact way
recipe– n. a set of instructions for making food
general– adj. not specific or detailed
ordinary– adj. normal or usual : not unusual, different, or special; disapproving : not very impressive
typical– adj. normal for a person, thing, or group :average or usual
cheap – adj. not costing a lot of money
dime store – n. U.S. old-fashioned: a store that sells inexpensive goods
breathtaking – adj. very exciting : very great or surprising
unique– adj. very special or unusual : belonging to or connected with only one particular thing, place, or person
Cleft Sentences in Speaking, Writing