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[翻译]AS IT IS - Bitcoin Becomes More 本站原创 更新时间: 2019-07-20         

Iranians are increasingly turning to digital currency, such as Bitcoin, to make money. The situation is creating alarm in and out of the country.

伊朗人越来越多地转向比特币之类的数字货币来赚钱。这种状况在伊朗国内外开始引发告警。

In Iran, some government officials worry that Bitcoin “mining” is abusing Iran’s system of government-supported electricity.

伊朗一些政府官员担心比特币“挖矿”会滥用政府补贴的电力系统。

In the United States, some observers warn that digital currencies could be used to go around economic restrictions targeting Iran.

美国一些观察人士警告称,数字货币可能被用于绕过针对伊朗的经济制裁。

What is Bitcoin?

什么是比特币?

Bitcoin is like money, but it is different than the paper money printed by governments around the world. Central banks do not control it. Instead, bitcoin and digital currencies like it trade globally in high-risk markets.

比特币就像是钞票,但是它跟世界各国政府印制的纸币有所不同。中央银行无法控制比特币。相反,比特币等数字货币通过高风险的市场在全球交易。

The markets depend on computers around the world to “mine” the data. In other words, the computers use highly complex mathematics to approve exchanges.

这个市场依赖于世界各地的计算机“挖掘”数据。换句话说,这些计算机利用高度复杂的计算来批准交易。

But the computers are not only costly; they also require a lot of electricity to work. In Iran, “miners” are in a good position because the government helps pay for electricity. “Miners” in Iran also buy less-costly Chinese ready-made computers.

但是这些计算机不但价格昂贵,还需要耗费大量电力。在伊朗,“矿工”处于有利地位,因为政府补贴电费。伊朗“矿工”还购买更便宜的中国成品电脑。

Those contacted by The Associated Press news agency refused to speak about their work or to say how much they earn from their “mining.” But the “miners” admit they do it to make some money at a time when the value of Iran’s currency, the rial, has fallen. Since 2015, the rial has dropped from 32,000 rials to $1, to around 120,000 rials to $1 now.

美联社接触到的矿工拒绝谈论他们的工作或是从“挖矿”中赚到了多少钱。但是“矿工们”承认,在伊朗货币里亚尔贬值的这样一个时期,他们这样做是为了赚钱。自2015年以来,里亚尔已经从3.2万里亚尔兑换1美元,贬值到现在大约12万里亚尔兑换1美元。

Unclear laws

法律模糊地带

Mohammad Javad Azari Jahromi is Iran’s minister for information and communications technology. He says, “The business of ‘mining’ is not forbidden in law.” However, he notes that the government and Central Bank have banned the import of mining machines until new regulations are introduced.

穆罕默德·贾瓦德·阿扎利·扎赫若米是伊朗信息与通信技术部长。他说:“法律并未禁止‘采矿’业务。”但是他指出,伊朗政府和中央银行已经禁止进口矿机,直到新规定出台为止。

Ali Bakhshi is the head of the Iran Electrical Industry Syndicate. He said earlier this month that the country’s Energy Ministry would likely increase costs for Bitcoin “miners” to 7 cents for each kilowatt of electricity they use. The current price is about a half-cent.

阿里·巴克谢西是伊朗电气工业联合会的会长。他在月初表示,伊朗能源部可能会将比特币“矿工”的电价提高到7美分每千瓦。目前的电价是0.5美分每千瓦。

Still, there are concerns, especially among Iran’s religious leaders, that people might try to avoid paying extra for the electricity. Using digital currency to hide or move money illegally is another concern.

尽管如此,还是有人担心人们可能会试图逃避支付额外的电费,尤其是该国的宗教领袖。使用数字货币隐匿或转移资金也是另一个问题。

Bitcoin and sanctions

比特币和制裁

U.S. officials have also been keeping a close watch on Iranians holding bitcoins. In November, a court in Newark, New Jersey accused two Iranian men of hacking and holding hostage computer systems in order to get payment in bitcoins.

美国官员也一直密切关注持有比特币的伊朗人。去年11月,新泽西纽瓦克市一家法院指控两名伊朗男子入侵并劫持计算机系统勒索比特币。

Sigal Mandelker is the U.S. Treasury’s undersecretary for terrorism and financial intelligence. Mandelker said Iran is becoming increasingly isolated and desperate for access to U.S. dollars. As a result, she said, digital currency services need to protect themselves against illegal activity.

西格尔·曼德尔科是美国财政部负责恐怖主义和金融情报的副部长。曼德尔科表示,伊朗正变得越来越孤立,迫切希望获得美元。她说,因此数字货币服务商需要保护自己免受非法活动的影响。

Jahromi, Iran’s minister for information and communications technology, did not seem to think such steps were necessary.

伊朗信息与通信技术部部长扎赫若米似乎并不认为这些措施有必要。

He said digital currencies were effective in getting around economic restrictions for small purchases or exchanges. But, he said, he did not think they could be used for big things.

他说,数字货币可以有效绕过对小买卖的经济制裁。但是他说,他认为数字货币在大买卖上就用不上了。

“We cannot use them to go around” international money systems, he said.

他说:“我们没法利用它们绕过国际货币体系。”

I’m John Russell.

Words in This Story

digital currency – n. payment method that exists only in electronic form

syndicate – n. a group of people or businesses that work together

kilowatt – n. a unit of electrical power equal to 1,000 watts

hack – v. computers : to secretly get access to the files on a computer or network in order to get information, cause damage, etc.