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[翻译]SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - Study: Replacing Fossil Fuels in US Could Cost $4.7 Trillion

更新时间:2019-7-7 8:13:51 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

A new study has found that replacing fossil fuel power systems in the United States could cost up to $4.7 trillion.

一项新研究发现,替代美国化石燃料能源系统可能需要耗资高达4.7万亿美元。

The study was released by energy research company Wood Mackenzie. The company is based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

该研究是由能源研究公司Wood Mackenzie所发布。该公司总部位于苏格兰的爱丁堡。

The report includes one of the first independent cost estimates for completely ending power sources that produce carbon pollution.

该报告包含了彻底摒弃碳排放能源的首批独立成本预算之一。

Some American politicians support the complete replacement of all fossil fuel-based energy sources in the United States with zero carbon systems. The study estimates this could cost at least $4.7 trillion and could present major economic and social difficulties. The total would amount to about $35,000 per U.S. household, the study found.

一些美国政客支持用零碳排放能源彻底取代美国化石燃料能源。该研究估计,这样做可能至少需要4.7万亿美元,并且可能会带来严重的经济和社会困难。该研究发现,耗资总额相当于每个家庭大约承担3.5万美元。

Several Democratic presidential candidates have proposed their own plans to reach the goal of zero carbon emissions. Former Vice President Joe Biden has said his plan would cost about $1.7 trillion. Another candidate, Beto O’Rourke, has proposed a $5-trillion plan to get to zero emissions.

一些民主党总统候选人提出了各自实现零碳排放目标的方案。前副总统乔·拜登表示,他的方案需要耗资大约1.7万亿美元。另一位候选人贝托·欧洛克提出了一项耗资5万亿美元的方案,以实现零排放。

Democratic U.S. House member Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who represents New York, helped create a “Green New Deal” proposal that seeks to solve several major environmental issues. It has been estimated to cost around $10 trillion.

纽约州民主党众议员亚历山大·奥卡西奥·科尔特斯帮助制定了一项旨在解决几项主要环境问题的“绿色新政”提案。据估计大约耗资10万亿美元。

Such ideas seek to appeal to a growing sense of urgency about climate change on both sides of the political divide. But many Republicans, including President Donald Trump, have criticized the Democratic proposals as being costly and impossible to carry out. They say the plans would harm the economy.

这些思路试图迎合存在政治分歧的两党对气候变化日益增长的紧迫感。但是包括川普总统在内的很多共和党人批评民主党人的提案代价高昂,不可能执行。他们说这些方案会损害经济。

A public opinion study released last week by Reuters/Ipsos showed that most Americans support "aggressive" climate change action like that proposed by Democrats. But that support falls sharply if individuals sense the plans would personally cost them.

路透社和益普索本周发布的一项民意调查显示,大多是美国人支持民主党提出的“激进”气候变化应对措施。但是,如果个人意识到这些方案会让自己付出代价,这种支持度就会急剧下降。

Wood Mackenzie’s report centers only on the costs to replace fossil fuel sources used to generate power. One of the main fossil fuel sources for U.S. power plants is coal. Coal plants give off air pollutants and heat-trapping gases that have been linked to climate change.

伍德麦肯兹的报告主要聚焦于替换发电所用化石燃料的成本。美国发电厂的主要化石燃料来源之一是煤炭。煤电厂会释放跟气候变化有关的空气污染物和吸热气体。

The study said the change from fossil fuels to green sources would require “a complete redesign” of the current power system.

该研究称,从化石燃料到绿色能源的转变需要对当前电力系统进行彻底地重新设计。

It estimated that 1,600 gigawatts of wind and solar capacity would have to be added, at a cost of around $1.5 trillion. That is more than 11 times the nation’s current wind and solar capacity. Even though the costs of wind and solar have been dropping, a sharp increase in demand could drive prices up, the study noted.

据估计必须耗资大约1.5万亿美元增加1600吉瓦的风能和太阳能。这是美国目前风能和太阳能容量的11倍多。该研究指出,尽管风能和太阳能的成本一直在下降,但是需求急剧上升可能会推动价格上涨。

The report estimated that more than 320,000 kilometers of electrical wires would have to be added to carry wind and solar energy from rural areas to major cities. The estimated cost for that effort would be about $700 billion.

该报告估计,必须增加超过32万公里长的电线,以便将风能和太阳能从偏远地区输送到主要城市,这项工作预计耗资约7千亿美元。

The study noted that major costs could be reduced if the process of completely moving away from fossil fuel sources took place over a longer period of time.

该研究指出,如果把彻底抛弃化石燃料这一过程所用的时间拉长,主要成本可能会下降。

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Words in This Story

fossil fuel – n. a fuel, such as coal, oil, or natural gas, that is formed in the earth from dead plants or animals

source – n. where something comes from

emission – n. the act of producing or sending out something (such as energy or gas) from a source

capacity – n. the largest amount of something that can be held in a container, building, etc.

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