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[翻译]AS IT IS - Humanitarian Groups Seek Ways to Reduce Attacks on Aid Workers

更新时间:2018/11/9 9:15:29 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

Humanitarian aid workers are often the target of armed groups in conflict areas.

人道主义援助人员经常成为冲突地区武装组织的目标。

Recently in Nigeria, Boko Haram militants killed two aid workers they had kidnapped.

最近在尼日利亚,博科哈拉姆武装分子杀害了他们绑架的两名援助人员。

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, civilians threw stones at health workers fighting the spread of Ebola Virus Disease. One day earlier, rebels shot and killed two Congolese army medical workers.

在刚果民主共和国,平民向抗击埃博拉病毒蔓延的卫生工作者投掷石块。一天前,叛乱分子开枪打死了两名刚果军队医务人员。

A research group called Humanitarian Outcomes has examined records documenting the problem. It says 139 aid workers were killed worldwide in 2017. Another 102 were wounded, while 72 others were kidnapped.

一家名为“人道主义成果”的研究组织研究了这些问题的记录。该组织称,2017年全球有139名援助人员遇害,另外还有102人受伤,72人被绑架。

The group says most attacks against aid workers took place in South Sudan, Syria, Afghanistan and the Central African Republic.

该组织表示,大多数针对援助人员的袭击都发生在南苏丹、叙利亚、阿富汗和中非共和国。

Already this year, over 80 aid workers have been killed. The findings were published in the report of a project of Humanitarian Outcomes, called the Aid Worker Security Database.

今年已经有80多名援助人员遇害。该研究结果发表在“人道主义成果”组织旗下项目“援助人员安全数据库”的报告中。

The London-based group says the kidnapping of aid workers by armed groups is becoming increasingly common.

这家总部位于伦敦的组织表示,武装组织绑架援助人员的现象越来越普遍。

Abby Stoddard is a partner with Humanitarian Outcomes. She says it noted an increase a few years ago in attacks involving the Taliban in Afghanistan. Taliban militants would detain and question aid workers. The Taliban would then release them a few days later after negotiations with local officials.

艾比·斯托达德(Abby Stoddard)是“人道主义成果”组织的一位合作伙伴。她说,该组织注意到了几年前涉及阿富汗塔利班组织的袭击事件有所增加。塔利班武装分子会扣押和质问援助人员。塔利班会在与当地官员谈判的几天之后释放他们。

Stoddard told VOA, "It has a lot to do with showing they are the boss in that area by intimidating aid groups, including local and national organizations who do a lot of the aid work."

斯托达德对美国之音表示:“这主要是(塔利班)通过恐吓援助组织,包括那些做大量援助工作的地方和国家组织,来显示他们才是该地区的老大。”

In South Sudan, armed groups appear to be targeting national aid groups, not international non-governmental organizations.

在南苏丹,武装团体似乎只针对国家援助组织,不会针对国际非政府组织。

Armed groups kidnapped 26 local aid workers last year, with at least 17 others kidnapped this year.

武装组织去年绑架了26名当地援助人员,今年至少有17人被绑架。

More careful aid delivery

更谨慎地援助交付

Humanitarian groups have been exploring ways to cut down on attacks against aid workers. Today some groups are more likely to move goods in unmarked vehicles, use more than one vehicle when transporting aid or take local taxis. They also avoid road travel at night, work in secure, gated communities, keep up radio communications with headquarters and examine security reports.

人道主义组织一直在探索减少对援助人员袭击的办法。如今,一些组织更喜欢用无标志车辆转运货物,在运输援助物质时使用多辆车或是乘坐当地的出租车。他们还会避免夜间公路旅行,在安全的封闭社区工作,与总部保持无线电通信并查看安全报告。

Some groups say one difficulty in protecting aid workers is identifying and negotiating with the leaders of armed groups.

一些组织表示,保护援助人员的困难之一是确定武装组织头目并与之谈判。

A study by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) noted that more than 40 percent of conflicts worldwide involved between three and 10 groups.

国际红十字会的一项研究指出,全球有40%以上的冲突包含了3到10个组织。

Many groups have no strong central leadership. Their members also have little training in treating civilians and often do not observe international humanitarian law.

很多组织没有强有力的核心领导。他们的成员也很少接受对待平民的培训,而且往往不遵守国际法。

In answer, the ICRC has created a plan for aid agencies to help identify leaders with whom they can negotiate. The ICRC seeks to find common ground between human rights law and local traditions that influence armed groups. For example, it found that two militant groups in Mali are influenced by Islamic religious law and local courts.

作为回应,国际红十字会制定了一项计划,帮助援助机构确定能够与之谈判的头目。国际红十字会力求在人权法和影响武装组织的当地传统之间找到共同点。例如,国际红十字会发现马里的两家激进组织受到伊斯兰宗教法律和地方法院的影响。

Brian McQuinn is an advisor working with the ICRC. McQuinn says Islamic law has its own rules on behavior during conflict, including the treatment of prisoners. He adds that the similarities between Islamic law and international humanitarian law can help with the protection of aid delivery, aid workers and hospitals.

布赖恩·麦奎恩(Brian McQuinn)是国际红十字会的顾问。麦奎因表示,伊斯兰法对冲突期间的行为,包括对待囚犯有自己的规则。他补充说,伊斯兰法和国际人道法之间的共同点可以帮助保护援助交付、援助人员和医院。

The ICRC is testing the process of identifying and working with armed group leaders in South Sudan. It plans to expand the process to other areas in the future.

国际红十字会正在测试确定南苏丹武装团体头目并与之合作的过程。它计划未来将这一过程扩展到其它地区。

I’m Jonathan Evans.

Words in This Story

boss – n. the person who has more power or control in a relationship

intimidate – v. to make someone afraid

gated – adj. designed to restrict entrance, usually with physical barriers

delivery – n. the act of providing or supplying something

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