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[翻译]AS IT IS - In Bhutan, Gross National Happiness More Important

更新时间:2018/3/19 6:56:43 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

Prayer flags fly high in the wind across steep valleys and roads in the Kingdom of Bhutan. Many visitors remember seeing Bhutan’s Buddhist religious centers and stately looking defenses called zhongs. Others might recall large water-powered prayer wheels spinning near waterfalls or farmers watching over long-haired yaks in the countryside.

在不丹王国险峻的山谷和道路上,经幡在风中高高飘扬。很多游客都记得不丹的佛教宗教中心和雄伟的瞭望防御设施宗堡(Dzong)。其他人可能会想起瀑布附近的大型水力转经轮,或是农村放牧长毛牦牛的农民。

Bhutan is the last remaining Buddhist kingdom in the Himalayas. The country lies between India and China, but it has never been captured or colonized.

不丹是喜马拉雅山脉仅剩的一个佛教王国。该国位于中印之间,但是从未被占领或殖民。

Bhutan still has much of its ancient culture. But it is attempting to become more modern without sacrificing its independence, culture or natural environment.

不丹仍然保有该国众多的古老文化。但是该国正试图在不牺牲独立性、文化和自然环境的前提下变得更加现代。

Bhutan advertises itself as an “exclusive” place to visit through “high value, low impact” tourism. Foreign visitors usually travel there by way of India or other nearby countries. Tourists can only visit Bhutan by signing up with licensed tour operators. The cost is between $200 and $250 a day, depending on the time of year. The government uses some of that money to pay for health care, schools and public services.

不丹宣传自己是“高价值、低力度”旅游业中一个值得探访的“独特”地区。外国游客通常经过印度或其它邻国前往不丹。游客们只能通过与持牌旅游经营者签订合同才能造访不丹。费用大约在每日200到250美元之间,具体取决于一年中的时节。政府将这其中的一些收入用于医保、学校和公共事业。

In the 1970s, the fourth king of Bhutan proposed an unusual method for measuring the country’s success. Unlike traditional measures, like the gross domestic product, the king suggested what he called gross national happiness. Gross national happiness means efforts in support of sustainable development, education and health, and valuing societal good over economic growth.

20世纪70年代,不丹第四任国王提出了一种衡量该国成功度的不同寻常的方法。与国内生产总值等传统衡量标准不同,这位国王提出了所谓的国民幸福总值。国民幸福总值意味着支持可持续发展、教育和健康,并更加重视社会福祉而不是经济增长。

The smoking of cigarettes is banned in the kingdom. In addition, Bhutan is the world’s only carbon-negative country. That means it produces less carbon than its forests and other plants take in.

不丹王国禁止吸烟。此外,不丹是世界上唯一一个碳净排放为负值的国家。这意味着该国产生的二氧化碳低于其森林和其它植物吸收的二氧化碳。

In 2016, the fifth and current king created the Laya Royal Highlander Festival, an event designed to bring tourists. The celebration takes place in October. It includes events like yak judging, wrestling competitions, pony races and native dancing.

2016年,第五任也就是现任国王创立了拉雅皇家高地人节,这项活动旨在吸引游客。庆祝活动在10月份举行,其中包括牦牛选美、摔跤比赛、矮种马赛跑以及本土舞蹈等。

Tourists attending the highland festival have to travel a total of 58 kilometers, from a height of 1,830 meters to more than 3,800 meters above sea level. Many paths along the way are rocky. Tour groups use donkeys to carry fuel, tents and other supplies. Rain can make those trails dangerous for both the animals and festival goers.

参加这项高原节日的游客一共必须跋涉58公里,从海拔1830米爬上海拔3800多米。沿途道路崎岖,旅游团使用毛驴运输燃料、帐篷等物品。下雨会让这些小路给这些动物和节日游人带来危险。

But the difficult conditions did not stop Bhutan’s king from attending the event last October. He made the trip in only a few hours. Most tourists, however, compete the trip in two days.

但是艰难条件并未能阻止不丹国王参加去年的活动。他只用了几个小时就完成了旅程。然而大多游客都在2天内完成旅程。

One popular festival event is a race called the nyagay. Six women wearing yak-wool skirts pull large pieces of wood halfway across a field. They then drop the wood and place 23 kilogram sacks of grain on the backs of their male partners. The women then climb on the men’s backs. The men pick up the wood, then race back to the starting line.

其中一项颇受欢迎的活动是nyagay比赛。六名穿着牦牛绒裙子的妇女把木头拉到田地的中间,然后扔下木头,把23公斤重的一袋袋谷物放到她们男性同伴的背上,然后这些妇女爬到男人背上。这些男性抱起木头,然后跑回起跑线。

Festival organizers covered a tent with gold and set up a throne-like chair for the king. But he spent most of his time greeting people. Before the start of the pony race, food was served. Hundreds of villagers and visitors sat cross-legged as helpers served rice, vegetable curries and hot butter tea. All of the food was provided by the king. And everyone seemed very happy.

节日组织者用黄金做帐篷顶,并为国王安放了一张宛若王座的椅子。但是他大部分时间都在跟人们打招呼。在矮种马赛跑开始前,食物端了上来。数以百计的村民和游客盘腿而坐,服务人员提供了米饭、蔬菜咖喱和热奶油茶。所有食物都是国王提供的,大家看上去都很高兴。

I’m Jonathan Evans.

Words in This Story

exclusive – adj. not shared; available to only one person or group

gross domestic product – n. the total value of the goods and services produced by the people of a nation during a year not including the value of income earned in foreign countries.

promote – v. to make people aware of something; to make something more popular

steep – adj. almost straight up and down; rising or falling very sharply

license – n. an official document; a card or paper that gives you permission to do something

impact – n. a major influence or effect

tourism – n. the custom of traveling for recreation

throne – n. the ceremonial chair of a ruler

yak – n. a large, long-haired animal

pony – n. a small horse

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