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[翻译]AS IT IS - What Effect Will Cuts to UN Peacekeeping Have?

更新时间:2017/12/17 11:12:43 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

One of the foreign policy goals of United States President Donald Trump's administration has been to reform United Nations peacekeeping.

川普总统领导下的美国政府的外交政策目标之一是对联合国的维和行动进行改革。

The administration says that the U.N. peacekeeping missions should cut costs and that the U.S. should pay less for them.

川普政府表示,联合国维和行动应该削减成本,同时美国应该减少对此的投入。

Earlier this year, the U.N. announced it would cut its budget by $600 million. Nikki Haley, the U.S. ambassador to the U.N., supported the announcement. She said, "We're just getting started."

今年早些时候,联合国宣布将削减6亿美元预算。美国驻联合国大使尼基·黑利(Nikki Haley)对这一声明表示支持。她说,“这只是个开始。”

Vice President Mike Pence has been critical of the U.N.'s peacekeeping missions. In September, he told the U.N. Security Council that peacekeeping missions should be more efficient and need to do a better job.

美国副总统彭斯一直批评联合国的维和行动。今年9月,他对联合国安理会表示,维和行动应该更有效率,并且需要做得更好。

Paul Williams is a professor at George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs. He said that it is a good idea to find ways to cut costs. However, he noted, blanket cuts can make it more difficult to keep soldiers safe.

保罗·威廉姆斯(Paul Williams)是乔治华盛顿大学埃利奥特国际事务学院的教授。他说,想办法削减成本是件好事。不过他指出,不分情形的全盘削减可能会更难保证维和士兵的安全。

Fifteen U.N. peacekeeping missions are ongoing around the world, including eight in Africa. The United States provides 28 percent of the U.N. peacekeeping budget. That is the most of any country. China is second, providing 10 percent of the budget.

联合国有15项维和行动正在世界各地进行,其中包括非洲的8起。美国承担了联合国维和预算的28%,位居各国首列。中国承担了10%的维和预算,排名第二。

Williams says the United States has a legal obligation to pay 28 percent of the peacekeeping budget. The U.S. has pushed to reduce the total budget in order to decrease the amount it has to pay.

威廉姆斯表示,美国负有承担28%维和预算的法定义务。美国已经推动削减维和总预算以便减少它必须承担的金额。

The peacekeeping budget is now $7.3 billion.

目前的维和预算为73亿美元。

To reduce costs, the U.N. must either close missions or reduce operations. Carrying out missions with a smaller budget could mean cutting personnel or logistical support.

为了减少开支,联合国必须要么结束维和行动,要么减少行动。以较少预算执行维和行动可能意味着削减人员或是后勤支持。

Both choices concern Williams. He said U.N. peacekeepers already operate with few resources.

这两种选择都让威廉姆斯感觉担忧。他说,联合国维和部队行动的资源本来就少。

In early December, an attack in the Democratic Republic of Congo killed 14 Tanzanian peacekeepers and five Congolese soldiers. The attack showed the risks faced by U.N. peacekeeping missions.

12月初,刚果民主共和国发生的一场袭击导致14名坦桑尼亚维和人员以及5名刚果士兵牺牲。这次袭击显示出了联合国维和行动面临的风险。

The mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo will likely face more difficulties. That is because the country's president, Joseph Kabila, has refused to step down, even though he has reached his two-term limit.

在刚果民主共和国进行的维和行动可能会面临更多困难。这是因为该国总统卡比拉即便已经达到两届任期限制也拒不下台。

Aditi Gorur is director of the Protecting Civilians in Conflict Program at The Stimson Center, a research group in Washington DC.

阿迪提·格鲁尔(Aditi Gorur)是美国史汀生中心保护冲突下平民项目的负责人,这是华盛顿的一家研究组织。

Gorur notes that some U.N. missions have already had large reductions.

格鲁尔指出,一些联合国维和行动已经进行了大幅削减。

"A big part of the motivation for those cuts was pressure from the U.S. government," she said.

她说:“很大一部分削减的动机源自于美国政府的压力。”

Gorur worries that reductions are not well planned and "the cuts come first and then the strategy comes later."

格鲁尔担心削减会计划不周,会“先有削减,再有战略。”

She notes that rising levels of "local intercommunal violence" will likely continue in places like the Democratic Republic of Congo.

她指出,当地社区间的暴力水平不断上升可能会在刚果民主共和国等地继续存在。

Williams said that, while some things can be done better with the same budget, cuts can place added pressure on peacekeepers.

威廉姆斯表示,虽然有些事情可以用同样多的预算做得更好,但是削减会给维和人员带来额外压力。

I'm John Russell.

Words in This Story

efficient – adj. capable of producing desired results without wasting materials, time, or energy

blanket – adj. affecting or applying to everyone or everything

obligation – n. something that you must do because of a law, rule, promise, etc.

logistical – adj. the things that must be done to plan and organize a complicated activity or event that involves many people

motivation – n. a force or influence that causes someone to do something

strategy – n. a careful plan or method for achieving a particular goal usually over a long period of time

intercommunal – adj. existing or occurring between communities

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