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[翻译]Words and Their Stories - Shark! Dangerous in the Water and in English

更新时间:2017/6/4 8:51:59 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

Now, the VOA Learning English program Words and Their Stories.

On this weekly show, we tell about commonly used American expressions. By knowing these expressions, you can improve your ability to speak and understand American English.

在这个每周一期的节目中,我们讲述常用的美式短语。通过了解这些短语,你可以提高对美式英语的说话和理解能力。

Today, we go deep into the high seas to meet one of the most feared hunters in the ocean – the shark!

今天我们深入公海去见见海洋中一种最可怕猎人--鲨鱼。

Sharks are large, usually gray saltwater fish. Unlike other creatures, they have a skeleton made of cartilage, not bones.

鲨鱼是一种大型的,通常为灰色的咸水鱼。与其它生物不同,它们的骨架是由软骨组成的,而不是骨骼。

Sharks also have sharp teeth. They are known for being dangerous and eating whatever they want.

鲨鱼还有锋利的牙齿,它们被认为是非常危险的,会吃下它们想吃的任何东西。

That’s in the water. On land, Americans use the word “shark” in a number of expressions. It’s no surprise that they all suggest some form of danger.

这是在水里。在陆地上,美国人在很多短语中用到shark这个单词。它们都表明某种危险,这也不奇怪。

The word shark can be used to describe someone who is tricky and uses other people.

Shark这个单词可以用于形容一个诡计多端并利用他人的人。

An example of this is the term loan shark. Loan sharks are people, not fish. They loan money at very high interest rates to others who need the money badly.

Loan shark(放高利贷的人)这个术语就是一个例子。Loan sharks是指人而不是鱼。他们以非常高的利率向急需这笔钱的人提供贷款。
 

FILE - In this undated file photo provided by Discovery Channel, a great white shark swims near Guadalupe Island off the coast of Mexico.

A “shark” can also be someone who is very good at something. However, they often use their skill to trick others. Sometimes we use this version of “shark” as a verb.

Shark也能是一位擅长某事的人。然而,他们经常利用他们的技巧欺骗他人。有时候我们把这种变体的shark当作动词。

For example, let’s say you are skilled at playing the game of pool, also known as pocket billiards. In fact, you never lose a game. One night, you go to a pool hall and act like you are not a good player. You miss shot after shot on purpose. You invite another person to play a game. You play against them and lose. Then, you ask them to give you another chance. Not only that, you offer them money if they beat you a second time. The opponent happily accepts and, to be fair to you, makes the same offer. But you defeat them and win all the money.

例如,我们假设你很擅长打台球。实际上,你从未输过。一天晚上,你到台球厅装作水平不行,打不中目标球。你邀请另一个人打一局,你跟他们打输了。然后你让他们跟你再打一局。不仅如此,如果他们再次击败你,你就输给他们钱。你的对手欣然接受。为表公平他们也提供相同的赌注。但是你击败他们赢了所有钱。

In a situation like this, you are considered a pool shark and have “sharked” your opponent. But you had better leave. As at the beach, sharks are also not popular in a pool hall.

在这种情况下,你被认为是一位台球高手,并且欺骗了你的对手。但是你最好离开。因为sharks在台球厅跟在沙滩上一样不受欢迎。

It goes without saying that sharks, whether in the water or on land, can be dangerous.

Sharks无论在水中还是陆地上都是非常危险的,这当然不用说。

If you are swimming with sharks in the ocean, you might be in serious danger. And if you are swimming with sharks on land, you are spending time with the wrong crowd.

如果你在大海里跟鲨鱼一起游泳,你可能会非常危险。如果你在陆地上跟骗子们一起玩,你就找错对象了。

Let’s go back to the pool hall and our story about the pool shark. Imagine that the people whose money you won are not the nicest. They are criminals who are now angry at you for winning their money. You could say, based on this example, you are swimming with sharks.

让我们回到台球厅以及与此相关的故事。假设你赢钱的对象不太正派。他们是犯罪分子,现在对你赢了他们的钱非常生气。基于这个例子,你可以说,你是在与狼共舞。

If the sharks are circling, then someone is in danger and their enemies are preparing for the kill. When sharks smell blood in the water, they come and circle the wounded animal. The same can be said for people.

如果强敌环伺(sharks are circling),那么某人就处于危险中,他们的敌人准备好了杀人。当鲨鱼在水中闻到血腥味,它们就会游过来围着受伤的动物绕圈。对于人来说也是如此。

Let’s say you are at work and experience bad luck on a project or two. You are in danger of losing your job. Your co-workers may smell blood in the water. You could say the sharks have started circling. In this example, your mistakes are the blood and the sharks are your co-workers.

假设你在工作中有一两个项目运气不佳。你有丢掉工作的危险。你的同事“可能闻到了水中的血腥味”。你就可以说,“鲨鱼们”围上来了。在这个例子中,你的失误就是血,鲨鱼就是指你的同事们。

On the other hand, someone who is shark bait is not dangerous -- just the opposite.

另一方面,被称为shark bait的人并不危险,而是恰恰相反。

Shark bait is one way of describing a person who swims in the ocean alone. For people who live at the beach, shark bait can also be an expression for someone who gets sunburned easily because they are not used to the bright sun.

Shark bait是指在大海中单独游泳的人。对于生活在海滩上的人来说,shark bait也可以指容易晒伤的人,因为他们不习惯明媚的阳光。

But for everyone else, shark bait describes someone who is unsuspecting and easy to trick. Two great words that mean “shark bait” are naïve and gullible.

但是对于其它所有人来说,shark bait描述的是一位毫无戒心和容易受骗的人。这两个词意味着shark bait是非常天真和易上当的。

Now, to jump the shark is one of those idioms that doesn’t make much sense unless you know about its roots.

现在,to jump the shark是一个没有多大意义的成语,除非你知道它的来源。

The expression “jump the shark” comes from the American television show “Happy Days.” This TV series was first broadcast in 1974 and continued until 1984.

Jump the shark这个短语出自美国电视剧Happy Days。这部电视剧于1974年首播,一直持续到1984年。

In 1977, Fonzie -- the show’s most popular character -- jumped over a shark while waterskiing. It was a silly story. And years later, TV critics said this jumping the shark program was the beginning of the decline of “Happy Days.”

1977年,Fonzie这位剧中最受欢迎的角色滑水时从鲨鱼身上跳了过去。这是一个愚蠢的故事。多年后,电视评论家表示,这一跳是Happy Days衰落的开始。

So, when Americans say something has “jumped the shark,” they mean it used to be popular or of high-quality, but no longer is. We also use this expression to describe something that has become silly or has no connection to reality. This expression usually refers to a TV show or the career of an artist or writer.

所以,当美国人称某些事情开始走下坡路(jumped the shark),意思是指它曾经非常受欢迎或者品质很高,但是已经好景不再。我们也使用这句短语来描述一些已经变得不实用或不现实的东西。这个短语通常是指电视节目或艺术家或作家的职业生涯。

Not everyone believes that Pablo Picasso’s art jumped the shark later in his career. But some critics think that it did.

不是每个人都认为毕加索的艺术作品在他职业生涯末期开始走下坡路。但是一些批评家认为事情确实如此。

I hope we haven’t jumped the shark with today’s Words and Their Stories.

I’m Anna Matteo …

… and I’m Jonathan Evans.

Words in This Story

skeleton – n. the structure of bones that supports the body of a person or animal

cartilage – n. a strong but flexible material found in some parts of the body (such as the nose, the outer ear, and some joints)

loan – n. an amount of money that is given to someone for a period of time with a promise that it will be paid back : an amount of money that is borrowed

naïve – adj. having or showing a lack of experience or knowledge : innocent or simple

gullible – adj. easily fooled or cheated : quick to believe something that is not true

beach – n. an area covered with sand or small rocks that is next to an ocean or lake

decline – v. to become worse in condition or quality

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