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[翻译]Health Report - WHO: Environmental Pollution Kills Millions of Children Every Year

更新时间:2017/3/28 10:04:42 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

这里是美国之音慢速英语健康和生活方式报道。

Environmental pollution kills 1.7 million children under the age of five every year worldwide. This is according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO warns that child deaths will increase greatly if pollution continues to worsen.

世界卫生组织表示,环境污染每年导致全球170万名五岁以下儿童死亡。世卫组织警告称,如果污染继续恶化,儿童死亡将会大幅增加。

Dr. Margaret Chan is the WHO Director-General. In a press release statement, Chan said, "A polluted environment is a deadly one – particularly for young children."

陈冯富珍博士是世卫组织总干事。她在一份向媒体发布的声明中表示,“受到污染的环境具有致命性,特别是对幼儿而言。”

She explains that "their developing organs and immune systems, and smaller bodies and airways, make them especially vulnerable to dirty air and water."

她解释说,“他们发育中的器官和免疫系统,以及弱小的身躯和气道,使他们特别容易受到肮脏的空气和水的影响。”

The most common causes of death among children aged one month to five years are diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia. This is according to the WHO. The organization also says reducing environmental risks can prevent such deaths. This means providing access to safe water and sanitation, limiting exposure to dangerous chemicals, and improving waste management.

世卫组织表示,年龄在一个月到五岁的儿童最常见的死因包括腹泻、疟疾和肺炎。该组织还表示,减少环境风险可以防止这类死亡。这意味着提供安全的饮水和卫生设施,限制接触危险化学品,并改善废弃物管理。

Experts say air pollution is the most dangerous

专家称空气污染最为危险

However, of all the environmental pollutants, air pollution is being called the most dangerous.

然而,在所有环境污染物中,空气污染被称为最危险的。

The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for about 6.5 million premature, or early, deaths every year. That number includes nearly 600,000 deaths of children under age five.

世卫组织估计,空气污染每年造成了大约650万例的过早死亡。这一数字包括近60万名五岁以下儿童的死亡。

Most of these deaths take place in developing countries.

However, WHO environment and health chief Maria Neira tells VOA that air pollution is a leveler between rich and poor. Everybody, she says, needs to breathe.

然而,世卫组织环境与健康司司长玛丽亚·尼拉(Maria Neira)对美国之音表示,空气污染不分贫富。她说每个人都需要呼吸。

"You can be a very rich child, your parents very rich, but living in a place, in a city, which is very polluted. Then there is very little you can do because we all need to breathe. So, even if you are rich or poor, you still need to breathe and this is very pernicious. Air pollution is everywhere."

她说,“你可能是富人家孩子,你父母很富有,但是生活在一个污染非常严重的城市。然后你能做的很少,因为我们都需要呼吸。因此,即使你贫或富,你仍然需要呼吸,而这是非常有害的。空气污染无处不在。”

Neira says one of the most important ways to reduce air pollution is to produce cleaner fuels for cooking and heating.

尼拉表示,减少空气污染最重要的途径之一就是生产更清洁燃料用于烹饪和采暖。

"Almost half of the world population is using dirty fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting at home. And, this is affecting very much mothers who are staying and cooking at home, but the children who are around mothers—they are exposed as well.”

“世界上几乎一半人口正在使用污染性燃料进行烹饪、供暖和照明。而且,这极大影响了呆在家里做饭的妈妈们,也影响到了妈妈们身边的孩子。他们都暴露在污染中。”

She says early exposure to harmful pollutants can lead to increased risk of chronic respiratory disease, asthma, heart disease, stroke and cancer later in life.

她说,早期接触有害污染物可能会导致慢性呼吸系统疾病、哮喘、心脏病、中风、癌症等性命风险增加。

Cleaning up how the world cooks, heats and lights homes and other buildings is a big-picture goal. The WHO is advising government departments and industries such as construction and the health sector to work together to clean up their environment.

让全球采用清洁能源烹饪、供暖、照明是一个大蓝图目标。世卫组织建议建筑和卫生部门等政府机构及行业共同努力清洁环境。

But what about the here and now? What can individuals do to limit our family’s exposure to air pollution?

但是眼前要怎么办呢?个人可以做些什么来限制家庭暴露于大气污染中?

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has the following suggestions:

美国环保局有以下建议:

Avoid walking where there is a high volume of vehicle traffic.

避免在有大量交通工具的地方行走。

Equip homes with air filters and air conditioning units.

在家里配备空气过滤器和空调机组。

Limit your time outside if you live in an area that issues warnings about air quality.

如果你居住的地方发布了空气质量警报,那么限制在外停留时间。

Wear high-grade, rated face masks tightly to the face when air quality is poor.

当空气质量不佳时,戴上优质的、紧贴面部的标准口罩。

If you live or commute in a very polluted area, remove your clothes and wash immediately after entering your house.

如果你在空气污染非常严重的地区生活或工作,进屋后立即脱下衣服并清洗。

Some of these suggestions, however, may not work for some people -- for example:

然而其中一些建议可能不适合一些人,例如:

those living in areas troubled by high levels of pollution,

那些生活在高污染地区的人们,

those who cannot stay home from work or school,

那些无法留在家里不去上班或上学的人们,

or those who do not have money for protective equipment.

或是那些买不起防护装备的人们。

Therefore, the WHO stresses that governments around the world need to take the lead on ensuring that children grow up in a clean environment.

因此,世卫组织强调,世界各国政府必须带头确保儿童在清洁环境中长大。

And that’s the Health & Lifestyle report. I’m Anna Matteo.

Look for follow-up articles here at the Health & Lifestyle report on other ways you can protect yourself and your family against environmental pollutants.

Words in This Story

vulnerable – adj. capable of being physically or emotionally wounded

access – n. a way of being able to use or get something

sanitation – n. the process of keeping places free from dirt, infection, disease, etc., by removing waste, trash and garbage, by cleaning streets, etc.

pernicious – adj. causing great harm or damage often in a way that is not easily seen or noticed

leveler – n. something that treats or affects all people the same way

here-and-now – n. the present time —used with the

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