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[翻译]Words and Their Stories - From News Event Comes Common Expressions

更新时间:2017/3/5 9:30:05 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

Hello and welcome to another Words and Their Stories, from VOA Learning English.

Each week we tell the story of words and expressions used in American English.

每周我们都会讲述美式英语中的一些词语和短语。

Today, we talk about two phrases that were ripped from the headlines, meaning they both came into the language from news events that were covered extensively in the press.

今天我们讲述两条摘自头条新闻的短语,也就是说,这两条短语都是从广泛报道的新闻事件中进入英语语言当中的。

The first is Stockholm syndrome. Stockholm is, of course, a big city in Sweden. Syndrome is a condition.

第一条短语就是斯德哥尔摩综合征。斯德哥尔摩是瑞士的一个大城市,综合征是一种病症。

Stockholm syndrome is a type of brainwashing, a psychological condition. It describes a situation where a person held captive develops positive feelings toward their captors.

斯德哥尔摩综合征是一种强行洗脑,它是一种心理疾病。它描述了被囚禁者对囚禁他们的人产生正面情感的这样一种状况。

This expression comes from a failed bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden. In August of 1973 bank robbers held four employees captive in the bank for six days.

这条短语出自瑞典斯德哥尔摩市一次失败的银行抢劫案。1973年8月,银行抢劫犯把这四名雇员在银行里挟持了6天。

In time, the captives developed a strong connection with their captors. One captive allegedly said she was afraid the police would try to rescue them and endanger the captors.

经过一段时间,这些被挟持者同挟持者产生了紧密联系。据说一名被挟持者表示,她担心警察会试图救出他们并危及挟持者。

You may hear the phrase Stockholm syndrome in news reports where kidnapped people refuse to leave their captors after living in captivity for a long time. Fearing for their lives, these people have learned how to survive the best way they can. Connecting with their captors is their coping mechanism.

你可能会在被绑架者长时间被绑架后拒绝离开绑架者的新闻报道中听到斯德哥尔摩综合征这个词。由于担心自己的性命,这些受害者已经学会尽自己最大可能活下去。他们与绑架者的关系就是他们的应对机制。
 

Stockholm is a city in one of the featured expressions. Here, a woman walks during a snow blizzard in Stockholm, Sweden, November 2016.

We also use Stockholm syndrome to describe people who stay in unhealthy and sometimes even abusive relationships.

我们还使用斯德哥尔摩综合征来描述一些保持病态、有时候甚至是虐待关系的人们。

A famous example of Stockholm syndrome here in the U.S. relates to a wealthy heiress named Patty Hearst. In 1974 a group called the Symbionese Liberation Army kidnapped Hearst, the 19-year-old grand-daughter of a wealthy newspaper owner.

斯德哥尔摩综合征在美国一个著名的例子涉及到一位名为帕蒂·赫斯特(Patty Hearst)的女性富二代。1974年,一家名为共生军的组织绑架了赫斯特,19岁的她是一位报业富豪的孙女。

Several weeks after her kidnapping, Hearst helped her captors rob a bank in California. Then she ran from authorities. Finally, the Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested Hearst, and lawyers charged her with armed bank robbery.

在她被绑架的几个星期之后,赫斯特帮助她的绑架者在加州抢劫了一家银行。然后她从政府手里跑了。最终,联邦调查局逮捕了赫斯特,律师指控她持枪抢劫银行。

Hearst said she was a victim of brainwashing. She claimed she was abused by her captors and afraid for her life. Many professionals said she suffered from Stockholm syndrome. The court, however, did not agree. She was sentenced to 35 years in jail, but she only served two.

赫斯特说,她是强行洗脑的受害者。她声称自己受到绑架者虐待,担心自己性命不保。很多专业人士都称她患上了斯德哥尔摩综合征。然而法院不这么认为,她被判处35年监禁,但是只坐了两年牢。

With help, people who are brainwashed can unlearn this coping mechanism. However, recovery is much more difficult for those who have drunk the Kool-Aid.

经过帮助,被洗脑者可以遗忘这种应对机制。然而,喝过迷魂汤的人要康复可就难多了。

Let’s say someone believes in something with all their heart and soul. That something can be a social cause, a political movement or the person in charge. If they are so wrapped up in the cause, movement or person – to the point where they are unable to think for themselves – we say they have drunk the Kool-Aid.

假设有人全身心的信任某事物,这样事物可能是某项社会事业、政治运动或是某位领导人。如果沉迷在这项事业、运动或是人之中达到了忘记自我的境界,我们就说他们喝了迷魂汤。

But what is Kool-Aid and how does drinking it relate to brainwashing?

但是Kool-Aid是什么呢?喝这个怎么会和洗脑产生关联?

Kool-Aid is a flavored, sweet drink that was once very popular with American children. However, to drink the Kool-Aid is to accept the beliefs of another person or organization completely.

Kool-Aid是一种加了风味甜饮,一度在美国很受儿童欢迎。然而,喝迷魂汤(to drink the Kool-Aid )是指完全接受其他个人或组织的理念。

This expression comes from a very dark, disturbing event that happened in 1978.

这条短语出自发生在1978年的一次非常黑暗的、令人不安的事件。

An American named Jim Jones was operating a utopian community in Guyana, South America called Jonestown. But according to former members and eyewitnesses, Jonestown was not a utopia. It was a cult and a prison. Members were not allowed to leave nor were they fed properly. And Jones claimed the role of father figure over everyone.

美国人吉姆·琼斯(Jim Jones)在南美圭亚那经营着一个名为琼斯镇的乌托邦社区。但是根据前成员和目击者所言,琼斯镇并不是乌托邦,而是一种邪教和监狱。成员们不允许离开,过得也不好。而琼斯宣称自己是所有人的父亲角色。

Former members of the cult who managed to escape asked the U.S. government to get involved. So, U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan and several journalists went to Guyana to investigate. At the airport as the group was preparing to leave, a cult member shot at the group. On the runway, he killed Ryan, several journalists and a fleeing cult member.

成功逃离的前邪教成员请求美国政府介入。因此,美国国会议员利奥·瑞恩(Leo Ryan)和几名记者前往圭亚那调查。该团队在机场准备离开时,一位邪教成员枪击了这个团队。在跑道上,他杀了瑞恩、几位记者以及一位要离开的邪教成员。

Before the U.S. government could act, Jim Jones asked his followers to kill themselves by drinking a sweet, flavored beverage. The drink contained poison. More than 900 of his followers drank it -- some willingly, some forced.

在美国政府得以行动前,琼斯要求追随者喝一种甜味饮料自杀。这种饮料中掺有毒药。900多名追随者喝了下去,有些是自愿,有些是被迫。

The massacre led to the expression “don’t drink the Kool-Aid.”

这场大屠杀产生了“don't drink the Kool-Aid”这条短语。

As an historical note, the beverage that contained the poison was not actually Kool-Aid but another similar brand called Flavor-Aid. This detail, however, does not change the expression. Nor does its terrible origin stop people from using it.

作为历史的注解,含有毒药的饮料实际上并不是Kool-Aid,而是类似品牌Flavor-Aid。然而这个细节不会改变这条短语,其可怕起源也不能阻止人们继续使用这条短语。

In fact, in 2012 editors at Forbes included “drink the Kool-Aid” in that magazine’s List of Most Annoying Business Jargon.

实际上,福布斯杂志编辑在2012年将“drink the Kool-Aid”列入了该杂志最讨厌的商业行话的名单之中。

Despite the dark origins of both “drink the Kool-aid” and “Stockholm syndrome,” they are both used today in serious and non-serious situations.

尽管“别喝迷魂汤”和“斯德哥尔摩综合征”这两条短语起源非常黑暗,它们如今都在各种严肃和非严肃场合中被用到。

I’m Anna Matteo.

Words in This Story

captive ­– adj. captured and kept in a prison, cage, etc.

captor – n. someone who has captured a person and is keeping that person as a prisoner

captivity – n. the state of being kept in a place (such as a prison or a cage) and not being able to leave or be free : the state or condition of being captive

coping mechanism – n. Psychology : an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control over behavior or gives psychological comfort.

heiress – n. a girl or woman who inherits a large amount of money

wrapped up – adj. If someone is wrapped up in a particular person or thing, they spend nearly all their time thinking about them, so that they forget about other things that may be important.

utopian – adj. impossibly ideal : utopia – n. an imaginary place in which the government, laws, and social conditions are perfect

cult – n. a small religious group that is not part of a larger and more accepted religion and that has beliefs regarded by many people as extreme or dangerous

father figure – n. an older man who is respected and admired like a father

massacre – n. the act or an instance of killing a number of usually helpless or unresisting human beings under circumstances of atrocity or cruelty

jargon – n. the language used for a particular activity or by a particular group of people

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