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警察如何抓捕使用无人机的罪犯

更新时间:2018/2/4 12:11:04 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

How police catch drone-flying criminals
警察如何抓捕使用无人机的罪犯

After spray painting his drone black, and taping over its lights, south Londoner Daniel Kelly probably thought he had a good chance of getting away with flying his now-stealthy drone into a prison yard.

在给无人机喷上了黑漆,在灯上面缠胶带后,伦敦南部居民丹尼尔·凯利(Daniel Kelly)以为这样无人机潜入监狱院子时很可能就不会被发现。

So in the early hours of 25 April last year, he flew the cheap, Chinese-made quadcopter, with what police believe was a package of contraband – tobacco and possibly legal highs – attached to a hook beneath it, over the wall of Swaleside jail on the Isle of Sheppey, in Kent.

去年4月25日早晨,他操纵这架价格便宜中国制造的四轴飞行器携带一包违禁品(香烟,可能还有合法毒品)挂在飞行器下面,飞过肯特郡(Kent)谢佩岛(Isle of Sheppey)斯瓦莱丝德(Swaleside)监狱的围墙。

Unfortunately, he overestimated his chances: he ended up jailed for 14 months, becoming the first person in Britain to be locked up under legislation that punishes such behaviour.

不幸的是,他高估了自己的运气:结果他被监禁14个月,成为英国第一个因无人机相关立法受到处罚被监禁的人。

But Kelly isn’t alone. He’s just one amongst many people worldwide who have discovered the potential that low-cost consumer drones have for illegal activities.

但是从事类似活动的远不止凯利一人。全世界有很多人发现了这种低成本的消费级无人机有用于非法活动的潜力。

And now, investigators are launching new forensic intelligence forces of detectives to get to the bottom of drone-related crimes.

现在,警方正在建立新的司法侦查力量,彻查与无人机相关的犯罪活动。

Whether it is flying illicit goods into forbidden places, spying on people, interrupting the work of the emergency services or worrying wild animals or aircraft, the threat they present is growing. Just a couple weeks ago, for instance, a drone forced five flights at London's Gatwick Airport to be diverted.

不论是把非法物资空运到禁区,还是窥探他人,抑或阻挠紧急服务,或者给野生动物和飞机造成干扰,无人机带来的威胁越来越多。比如,就在几周前,一架无人机迫使伦敦盖特威克机场(Gatwick Airport)的五个航班改变航线。

Identifying the pilots of remotely-controlled drones is not always easy. Drones are cheap, easy to fly, and widely available to consumers nowadays. Plus, governments are struggling to legislate fast enough to keep pace with burgeoning criminal possibilities.

不过找出遥控无人机的操纵者并不总是那么简单。如今,消费级无人机价格便宜,容易操纵,供应广泛。政府正在加快制定法律,以应对新兴的犯罪活动。

That’s why more police forces are turning to drone forensics teams: it might sound like the TV programme CSI, but it’s a growing trend of more detectives whose jobs it is to track down flyers of rogue drones.

这就是为什么警方把越来越多的力量投入到无人机司法鉴定队伍:这听起来可能有点像电视剧《CSI犯罪现场》,但是现在的趋势就是越来越多的警察开始追踪违法无人机的操纵者。

The rise of drone detectives

无人机警探

Just a few months ago, it was announced that the UK Prison Service and police are pooling resources to stop drone pilots from flying drugs and other contraband into British prisons, with reports suggesting that £3m could be spent on the new task force.

仅数月前,英国监狱管理局(UK Prison Service)和警方宣布整合资源,阻止无人机把毒品和其他违禁品空运至伦敦的监狱。有报告称建立这一支新的队伍可能需要花费300万英镑。

There’s a reason drone activity has piqued the interest of law enforcement. Drones deliver much more than drugs to jailbirds: they've been used to fly in mobile phones, hacksaw blades, knives, Sim cards, USB drives and DVD players. Not to mention they can fly over walls and barriers, complicating the operations of institutions ranging from government buildings to airports.

无人机活动引起司法部门注意事出有因。无人机为囚犯运送的不仅仅是毒品,还有手机、弓锯片、刀、Sim卡、U盘、DVD播放机等物品。更不用说,无人机还可以飞越围墙和障碍物,为政府大楼、机场等机构的运营带来烦扰。

This makes the identification of the drone pilot crucial for law enforcement.

因此,对无人机操纵者的识别就成了执法的关键。

While Kelly's case was rare in that the pilot, the drone and the smartphone/controller combination used to operate it were all captured together. And the drone contained valid flight data that had not been erased or otherwise tampered with.

在凯利的这个案件中,操纵者、无人机和智能手机都被抓获,这是很少见的。而且无人机里还包含未被擦除和篡改的有效飞行数据。

But how can a criminal pilot be identified when, say, only a drone is found at a crime scene? Or when only fragments from wreckage are found? Or when only a controller or phone is found, or when police have a likely pilot suspect but no drone?

但是,如果犯罪现场只找到无人机,那么该如何寻找操纵者?或者是只找到了无人机坠毁后的碎片,该怎么办?又或者只找到了操纵者或手机,但是没有找到无人机该怎么办?

This is where the drone detectives come in.

这时候就需要无人机警探介入了。

Tying the digital and physical facets of drone flight to a human pilot is not easy. This has led to a perception that, with drones controlled wirelessly from a distance, often unseen, it's an easy crime to get away with. Drones are cheap, after all, and can be abandoned if the flyer fears arrest.

把无人机的数字和实体层面与操纵者联系起来并不容易。于是,有一种观点就认为,通过在通常遥远隐蔽的地方无线遥控无人机,将是一个很容易实施却不被锁定的犯罪。毕竟,无人机很便宜,如果操纵者不想被逮捕,就可以舍弃它。

But just as investigators only began to understand the enormous forensic resource that mobile phones represent around the turn of the century, the tougher challenges of drone forensics are now quietly beginning to be met, too.

尽管警察才刚开始了解新世纪之交手机能够带来的大量司法证据资源,然而无人机的司法活动已经悄然遇到更严峻的挑战。

All these issues are adding up to a need for more investigative tools, says James Mackler, an attorney specialising in drone litigation at Mackler Law Firm in Nashville, Tennessee.

所有这些问题归根结底就是需要更多的调查工具,田纳西(Tennessee)纳什维尔(Nashville)麦克勒律师事务所擅长无人机诉讼的律师詹姆斯·麦克勒(James Mackler)说到。

"Drone forensics are becoming increasingly important as more drones take to the air. Civilian commercial drones are now being used by terrorist organisations and the fact that they are being weaponised makes forensics all the more critical." He knows the risks more than most: he’s a former US Army helicopter pilot who flew missions alongside military drones in Iraq.

"随着越来越多的无人机飞上天空,无人机司法科学正在变得日益重要。恐怖分子集团正在使用并武装民用商业无人机,这就让司法科学变得愈发重要。"麦克勒比大多数人更加了解其中的风险:他是美国军队前直升机飞行员,曾经在伊拉克驾驶飞机与军用无人机一起完成任务。

The need for drone-specific law enforcement extends to civilian safety, too. Crowds at football matches, concerts and protest marches have been regularly buzzed and endangered, too. At Seattle's 2016 Pride parade, for instance, a woman suffered concussion after a drone smashed into a building and dropped on her.

专门针对无人机的司法需求已经扩展至公民安全领域。足球赛、音乐会、示威游行的人群也经常受到无人机的烦扰和威胁。以2016西雅图同性恋骄傲游行(Seattle's 2016 Pride parade)为例,一架无人机撞上大楼后掉落在一名女性身上,导致她出现脑震荡。

And, of course, the drone's potential for invasion of privacy is profound, leading some people to shoot them down with all the risks public firearms use entails. Indeed, that has led to Mackler attempting to clarify drone airspace law after one of his clients had his drone shot down by a neighbour – and a federal judge let the shooter get away with it. It’s not clear in US law, Mackler says, where a householder’s airspace ends and FAA-governed civilian airspace begins.

当然,无人机还有可能对个人隐私造成巨大威胁,以至于一些人会用枪射击无人机。这样使用武器可能会造成各类公共安全威胁。麦克勒的一名客户操纵的无人机被邻居射中。麦克勒试图澄清无人机空域法,而最后联邦法官判定射击者无罪。麦克勒称,美国法律并未清晰界定居住者的空域范围和属于美国联邦航空管理局(FAA)的民用空域范围。

Unlocking the system

解锁系统

So how will authorities catch any drone-flying criminals?

那么,政府如何才能抓到使用无人机的犯罪分子?

The secret isn’t in the bulky device itself, says David Kovar, a digital investigator and cybersecurity consultant based near Boston, Massachusetts. It’s the fact that it’s part of a complex digital ecosystem.

马萨诸塞州(Massachusetts)波士顿(Boston)附近的数字调查者、网络安全咨询师大卫·科瓦尔(David Kovar)说,秘密并不在这个笨重的设备里,而是在复杂的数字生态系统中。

This “ecosystem” includes peripheral devices like smartphones, controllers, and sensors that collect data like GPS position and crash analysis data from accelerometers, compass heading, and video images. And metadata in the video will reveal where shots were taken, including altitude.

这个"生态系统"包含各种边缘设备,比如智能手机、遥控器、传感器。它们会从加速计、罗盘航向和视频中收集GPS位置数据、坠机分析数据等等。视频中的元数据会揭示拍摄的地点以及海拔高度。

So investigators do actually have a lot to go on forensically, Kovar says, even if they don't have all the physical components. After all, a drone may crash and fracture into pieces, or only a remote may be recovered at the scene.

科瓦尔说,所以即使没有实体零件,调查者仍有很多可依靠的资源。毕竟,无人机有可能会坠落,变成碎片,或者现场只收回了遥控器。

"But of them all, the biggest source of information is the mobile device, the phone or tablet," Kovar says. And investigators are well versed in pulling those apart.

科瓦尔说:"但是其中最重要的信息源是移动设备,即手机或平板电脑。"调查者熟知拆卸它们的方法。

But here’s the challenge: it is a diverse marketplace. Each drone has its own digital quirks.

但是挑战来了:这是一个多样化的市场,每台无人机有自己的数字特点。

How does the drone in question store flight data? How long does it store the latitude and longitude coordinates of where it was launched from? What data from the pilot's phone-based control app ends up stored in the drone too? Plus, different drones use different operating systems, so analysts need to be well-versed in each.

无人机是如何储存飞行数据的?它起飞时的经度纬度坐标能储存多久?操纵者手机里的数据有多少会存储到无人机里?还有,不同的无人机使用的操作系统也不一样,所以分析者需要熟悉每一个操作系统。

Sometimes the makers unwittingly help forensics teams: one drone model injects the user’s flight control app login and password – unencrypted or "in the clear" in tech jargon – on the drone. This means officers can simply log into a copy of the app and examine a user's flight video and records in cases where a crashed or dumped drone is found at a crime scene and there is no trace of the pilot.

有时候制造商也会不知不觉的帮助司法团队:有一款无人机会把用户的飞行控制应用的登录名和密码——以未加密的方式——发送至无人机上。这就意味着如果无人机在犯罪现场坠毁或者被丢弃,且操纵者没有留下踪迹,警官就可以简单的登录到应用里面,查看用户的飞行视频和记录。

But sometimes entire drones are found intact, too.

但有时候也会有无人机完好无损的情况。

"We have already been involved in the forensic analysis of drones recovered in prisons, or found crashed by police forces and the Ministry of Defence," says Michael May, managing director of FlyThru Limited of Huddersfield, a commercial drone operator in the UK. "They need to find out why they were there and we can comment forensically on whatever we can find on them, whether it is on the flight log data in the drone itself, or the DNA and fingerprints on it."

"我们曾参与过从监狱中回收的以及警方和国防部发现已经坠毁的无人机的司法调查,"位于哈德斯菲尔德(Huddersfield)的商业无人机运营商FlyThru有限公司的董事总经理迈克尔·梅(Michael May)说,"他们必须弄清无人机为什么会在那个地方,而如果有任何的发现,我们都可以从司法的角度提出看法,不论是飞行日志数据,还是无人机本身,抑或无人机上留下的DNA和指纹。"

A drone's rotors are reasonably sharp edged and retain traces of skin cells, he says, so they can sometimes retrieve DNA.  And there are parts like the SD cards – for storing video – and batteries where users can leave fingerprints as they insert them.

他还说,无人机的螺旋桨边缘一般都十分锋利,因此可能会留下皮肤细胞,有时候可以从中提取DNA。还有一些零件,比如SD卡——用于存储视频——和电池,当用户插电池时,可能会留下指纹。

It all sounds done and dusted, but some expert drone users are pretty clued up about hiding data.

听起来都很完美,但是一些专业的无人机用户非常善于隐藏数据。

So Graeme Horsman, a computer scientist and digital investigator at the University of Sunderland, took apart one cheap drone and found that there are a number of tricks a user could play to obscure where the drone has flown. He found it was possible to mask a drone's flightlog by turning off certain phone settings. He could also force the drone to store a fake location for the pilot's launch point.

桑德兰大学(University of Sunderland)的计算机学家、数字调查者格里莫·霍斯曼(Graeme Horsman)拆解了一台便宜的无人机,发现用户可以通过几个小技巧掩盖无人机的飞行位置。他还发现关掉手机的一些设置有可能掩盖无人机的飞行日志。他还可以强制无人机存储虚假的发射地点信息。

In other words, it’s easy for a drone pilot up to no good to cover their tracks.

换句话说,别有用心的无人机操作者很容易掩盖踪迹。

Even by wrapping aluminium cooking foil around the GPS antenna, Horsman created a Faraday cage – or radio wave absorber – that prevented the drone logging its flight.

霍斯曼甚至在GPS天线上包裹一层厨房用铝箔纸,创造出法拉第笼(Faraday cage):一种可以阻止无人机记录飞行信息的无线电波吸收器。

But it’s easy for that heavily protected digital data to vanish in thin air, even if the drone find its way into the hands of the authorities.

即使无人机落入有关部门的手中,其中受到严格保护的数据也很容易消失不见。

Turning a found drone off, or simply plugging in a USB cable, can cause data to be overwritten - and moving it can similarly overwrite GPS data. It all means it's vital to understand each popular drone before mishandling it or attempting forensics, Horsman says. "There are a lot of variables, so every drone investigation will be different."

一台无人机被发现以后,如果被关上,或者插入USB线,都可能导致数据被覆盖——如果移动无人机,也可能会覆盖GPS数据。这就意味着必须先了解每一款流行的无人机,再进行鉴定调查,才能避免误操作。霍斯曼说:"因为有很多变量,所以每一次无人机调查都不一样。"

Kovar says drones are already being seized for analysis: "Law enforcement seized a protester's drone at the North Dakota pipeline protests. I do not know who is doing the analysis of that drone. The drone that landed on the White House lawn was certainly analysed. And I know that people on the intelligence side are analysing drones captured from Isis on the battlefield."

科瓦尔说,调查者已经开始捕捉无人机进行分析:"司法部门在北达科他州(North Dakota)输油管道抗议活动中捕获了一位抗议者的无人机。我不知道是谁在分析那台无人机。降落在白宫草坪上的无人机肯定被分析过。我还知道情报部门的人员正在分析从战场上捕获的伊斯兰国的无人机。"

What’s most foreboding, however? Experts agree: we haven’t seen the worst criminals and terrorists can do with drones. That’s why being able to identify the pilot is becoming more pressing.

那么,最坏的打算是什么?专家一致认为:犯罪分子和恐怖分子用无人机可以做到的最恶劣的事情还没有出现。因此,我们需要尽快具备查明无人机操纵者的能力。

"The worrying thing is that some of our drone platforms can carry 15kg (32lb) payloads. That's a hell of a lot. Terrorists could switch from using truck bombs to ones they trigger from above," May says. He warns that some could even fly international missions as drone range increases. It's even possible a bioweapon – like anthrax – could be dispersed by a drone.

"让人担忧的一点是,一些无人机可以载重15公斤,那真的是太多了。恐怖分子可以把汽车炸弹转移到空中,"梅说。他警告说,随着无人机续航里程的增加,一些无人机甚至有可能完成国际飞行任务。

"This is an emerging technology and we cannot predict the number of dodgy ways drones are going to be used in future,” says Horsman. “I think we are going to be constantly surprised at what people do with them - it's only limited by the imagination of the criminal."

"这是一种新兴科技,我们无法预计无人机将来会有哪些用途,"霍斯曼说,"我觉得我们会不断的惊讶于人们开发出的新用途——这要看犯罪分子的想象力有多大。"

Spray-painted drones, with taped over lights, look like being the very least of our problems.

这么看来,给无人机喷漆,在灯上面缠胶带,这些问题可能是最微不足道的。

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