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挪威“巨人之舌”的头痛问题

更新时间:2017/11/8 19:26:22 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

Why Norway is teaching travellers to travel
挪威“巨人之舌”的头痛问题

We reached Trolltunga after seven hours, 13.5km and 1,000m of elevation gain. The fog rolled in as a line of 35 people waited to take their picture on the iconic cliff. Translating to ‘Troll’s Tongue’, Trolltunga juts out of a steep mountainside 700m above Lake Ringedalsvatnet near Odda in south-western Norway. Formed 10,000 years ago during the Ice Age when a glacier frozen to the mountain broke off, it has in recent years become one of Norway’s most famous geological sites – and one of its most controversial.

经过7小时、13.5公里长途跋涉,爬高1000米,我们终于抵达巨人之舌(Trolltunga)。雾气滚滚而来,有35人排队等候在标志性的悬崖上拍照。巨人之舌位于挪威西南部奥达(Odda)附近一个高于湖面700米的陡峭山崖上,就像是悬崖峭壁上伸出的"巨人"的舌头。它是一万年前冰河时期冰川融化所形成的。近年来,它成为挪威最著名、也是最具争议的地质遗迹之一。

Deciding we’d wait until the next morning to have our picture taken on the rock, my hiking partner Jacqueline and I were shown to our tent by our day guide. The only ones in our group to stay overnight, we tossed our rucksacks in the already-pitched tent about 500m from the cliff edge and took a nap. A few hours later, our overnight guide Erlend Indrearne arrived with a young couple from China who would camp with us. It was raining, so we all took shelter in the small emergency cabin next to our tents to cook meatballs over a single burner and drink cups of Solboer Sirip (a redcurrant juice) mixed with chilled water. Wind blew in through the cabin’s broken window, and the wooden floors creaked with every shift in bodyweight as we tried to get comfortable.

我们决定等第二天早上再去悬崖上拍照。我和徒步旅行伙伴杰奎琳(Jacqueline)被导游带到了我们的帐篷里。我们是一行人中唯一两个在这里过夜的人。我们把背包扔在已经搭起的帐篷里,帐篷距离悬崖大约500米,我们要先打个盹。几小时后,我们的导游厄伦德·因德雷恩(Erlend Indrearne)带来一对来自中国的年轻夫妇,他们要和我们一起宿营。当时正在下雨,所以我们都躲在帐篷旁边的应急小木屋里,在一个小炉子上煮肉丸,喝着一种混着冰水的红醋栗汁(Solboer Sirip)。风从小屋的破窗户吹进来,木质地板随着我们移动的身体吱吱作响。

“How many hikers usually have to turn around?” I asked, laying a damp sleeping bag from the storage room across mine and Jacqueline’s laps. I thought back to the beginning of the hike when two people out of our group of 20 turned back after 45 minutes of steep hiking.

"有多少徒步旅行者没走完全程半途而废?"我问道,一边把储藏室里一个潮湿的睡袋放在我和杰奎琳的膝盖上。我回想起徒步旅行的开始,当时我们一行20个人中,有两人在艰难的徒步旅行45分钟后掉头返回。

“At least one or two in every group.” Indrearne replied, dishing the warm meatballs onto five plates. “Many of them come unprepared and don’t understand the intensity of nature here. Or they come with no respect and leave their garbage scattered everywhere.”

"每一组至少有一两个会掉头返回。"因德雷恩一边回答,一边把热乎乎的肉丸分放在五个盘子中。"他们中很多人并没有做好准备,也不了解这里严酷的自然条件。也有人不尊重大自然,随处丢弃垃圾。"

“Is it just tourists who leave behind rubbish?” I asked. “Or Norwegians too?”

"只有游客乱丢垃圾吗?"我问道。"挪威人也会这么做吗?"

“It’s really the tourists who take advantage of allemansratten,” he said. “Norwegians know better. We were raised on fjellvettreglene.”

"真的是那些滥用'自由行走权'(allemansratten)的游客干的,"他说。"挪威人都知道,我们从小接受'山区准则'(fjttreglene)教育长大。"

Although a traditional right from ancient times, allemansratten has been part of the Outdoor Recreation Act since 1957. The rules are simple: you can sleep anywhere as long as you stay at least 150m away from the nearest residency, and if you sleep more than two nights in the same place, you must ask the landowner’s permission. Most important, though, is that those who practice allemansratten should have respect for nature, the wildlife and the locals.

虽然自古以来就是一个传统权利,但自1957年以来,这种权利就一直成为户外休闲活动的一个组成部分。规则很简单:你可以在距最近住处至少150米远的任何地方睡觉;如果要在同一个地方过夜超过两个晚上,你就必须要得到土地所有者的许可。然而,最重要的是,那些行使这项权利的人应该尊重大自然、野生动物和当地人。

Norway is not the only country to practice this ‘right to roam’ law. Other countries include Finland, Iceland, Sweden, Latvia, Austria, the Czech Republic and Switzerland. What separates Norway from the rest, however, is fjellvettreglene.

挪威并不是唯一一个行使"自由行走权"的国家。其他国家还包括芬兰、冰岛、瑞典、拉脱维亚、奥地利、捷克和瑞士。然而,挪威与其他国家的区别在于"fjttreglene"。

Fjellvettreglene, known as Norway’s ‘mountain code’, was introduced after a several accidents occurred during Easter of 1950. After 15 people died in the elements during another Easter of 1967, the Norwegian Trekking Association and The Red Cross announced their campaign ‘Welcome to the mountains, but be responsible’. Fjellvettreglene, which encourages people to have a healthy and respectful relationship with nature, has since become a crucial part of Norwegian culture. It includes points such as planning your trip and reporting wherever you go, bringing necessary equipment to assist yourself and others, always knowing where you are, seeking shelter if necessary and feeling no shame in turning around.

'Fjellvettreglene'被称为挪威的"山区准则",它是在1950年复活节期间发生几起事故后引入的。在1967年的另一个复活节,15人死于山难事故,挪威登山协会和红十字会发起宣传运动"欢迎来到山区,但要负责"。这个山区准则鼓励人们与大自然保持健康、相互尊重的关系,它已经成为挪威文化的一个重要组成部分。它包括旅行规划和旅行目的地报告,携带必要装备帮助自己和他人,随时了解自己身在何处,在必要时寻求庇护,在掉头返回时不感到羞耻。

“Fjellvettreglene taught us nature doesn’t care about our egos. We should show as much respect and take as much caution as possible. Take this hike, for example,” Indrearne explained. “For people who aren’t experienced hikers, this is considered extreme. Not many tourists realise that. For Norwegians, we’re hikers. We grew up with this nature. We know how powerful it can be.”

"山区准则教导我们,大自然并不关心我们每个人的小我。我们应该尽量保持尊重和谨慎。以徒步旅行为例,"因德雷恩解释道,"对于那些没有经验的徒步旅行者来说,这里条件极端恶劣。"没有多少游客能认识到这一点。对挪威人而言,我们是天生的徒步旅行者。我们从小就有这种天性。我们知道大自然有多强大。"

Fascination for the outdoors comes naturally to Norwegians because of friluftsliv. Coined in 1859, the philosophical concept of friluftsliv means ‘free-air life’ and is used to illustrate the raw dedication and passion Norwegians have for nature. It equates the sensation of going backpacking in the mountains or camping on the shore with the feeling of being home.

由于山区准则,挪威人对户外活动的迷恋是自然而然的。山区准则的哲学理念在1859年诞生,即"享受自由空气的生活",它反映了挪威人对大自然的热爱和激情。这就等于说,在山里背包旅行或在海边露营对挪威人而言就像在家里一样。

But while friluftsliv encourages people to practice allemansratten and allemansratten encourages the love for friluftsliv, fjellvettreglene is the education to preserve and protect nature.

但是,山区准则鼓励人们行使自由行走权,自由行走权又反过来鼓励人们热爱山区准则,山区准则是一种保护大自然的教育。

“Since Trolltunga is becoming a brand-new bucket-list item, we’re trying to educate the rest of the world now, too.”

"既然巨人之舌成为热门景点,我们也在尝试着去教育世界其他地方的人。"

While Odda, the nearby town to Trolltunga, has been called the ‘rotten apple’ of the Hardanger region because of its industrialised look, today the town has become a popular tourist destination – and it’s primarily because of Trolltunga. From just 1,000 tourists in the whole of 2010, Trolltunga saw 1,800 visitors in one 2017 day alone.

尽管巨人之舌附近的小城奥达(Odda)因其工业化的外观被称为"烂苹果",但今天它已经成为一个备受欢迎的旅游目的地——这主要还是因为巨人之舌。奥达2010年仅接待游客1000人,而到了2017年,一天的游客就多达1800人。

Indrearne explained this surge of tourists coming to Trolltunga. “People want the same picture they see on Instagram and Facebook. A lot don’t care about the experience of the hike. They just want proof that they did it, and they’re ruining the nature up here with their garbage.”

因德雷恩解释说,汹涌而来的游客都是奔着巨人之舌而来的。"人们想要的不过是在Instagram和Facebook上发布同样的照片。很多人并不关心徒步旅行本身的经历。他们只是想证明他们做了这件事情,还用他们的垃圾破坏了这里的自然环境。"

Nationally, Norway has experienced an 11% increase in tourism from 2015 to 2016, with some regions seeing as much as a 32% increase. But, while good for the economy, this tourism boom has become a threat to Norway’s ancient right to roam law.

从2015年到2016年,挪威全国的游客人数增长了11%,其中一些地区的游客人数增长了32%。但是,尽管旅游发展对经济有好处,但这种旅游热潮已经对挪威古老的"自由行走权"造成威胁。

“We’re proud of allemansratten here, but the truth is that it’s creating dangerous situations,” said Indrearne, shaking his head. “Norway has never had to regulate hikes before, but we believe Trolltunga may have to be one of the first. It’s become a big controversy.”

"虽然我们为自由行走权感到骄傲,但事实上,它正造成危险的局面,"因德雷恩摇着头说。"挪威以前从未监管过徒步旅行,但我们相信,巨人之舌可能会是第一批必须监管的地方。这已经引发了巨大的争议。"

Used toilet paper, leftover barbeque grills, abandoned tents, sweet wrappers and plastic bottles can be found littered all around Trolltunga. Someone even wrote their name on the cliff in black pen. And with the high amount of people who come unprepared for such a strenuous hike, Norway’s leading hiking group, Friluftsliv, also has called for regulations on the number of tourists hiking to Trolltunga and other of the country’s threatened geological attractions. Lasse Heimdal, leader of the outdoor organisation, defended their stance by saying that it is “urgent that we now take measures to ensure that outdoor life is safeguarded.”

在巨人之舌附近,游客用过的厕纸、丢下的烧烤架、废弃的帐篷、糖果的包装纸和塑料瓶等物品随处可见。有人甚至用黑笔在悬崖上写下他们的名字。由于很多人对这种艰苦的徒步旅行毫无准备,挪威的主要徒步旅行组织'Friluftsliv'也呼吁,要对巨人之舌和挪威其他受到威胁的地质景点的游客数量加以限制。户外活动组织的领导人拉塞·海姆达尔(Lasse Heimdal)为他们的立场辩护,他表示,"现在就采取措施确保户外活动安全非常紧迫"。

“The amount of people up here takes hold of the nature,” Indrearne continued. “On a busy day, you may have to wait in line for an hour and a half just to get a picture. To control this, we’d like to regulate how many people can hike in a day. As for camping, we believe passes should be a requirement and should be limited. Starting hike times should also have regulations so people don’t start too late and find themselves stuck up here. We also encourage people to do a guided hike. As guides, we’re trying to set examples for others to be respectful to the nature.”

因德雷恩继续说:"这里的游客数量让大自然难以招架。""在繁忙的一天,你可能要排队等上一个半小时才能得到一张照片。"要控制这一点,我们就要控制每天的徒步旅行者数量。至于野营,我们认为应该要求发放通行证,并限制发放数量。对徒步旅行的出发时间也应该有规定,这样人们才不会因为出发太晚而被困在这里。我们也鼓励人们参加有向导的徒步旅行。作为向导,我们试图为他人树立榜样,让他们也尊重大自然。"

The next morning, Jacqueline and I began the 13.5km descent. A rescue helicopter hummed low to the ground searching for a hiker. We walked past the long line of exhausted people waiting to take their picture on the cliff, some wearing sneakers wrapped in plastic bags and others in short sleeves shivering in the 5C wind. We stood in the back of the line, waiting to get our picture taken by Indrearne; the only way to get the iconic picture of the rock jutting upwards is by going on a guided hike where your guide suspends upside down 10 to 12m to take your photograph.

第二天早上,杰奎琳和我开始了13.5公里的下山路。一架救援直升机在地面上嗡嗡地叫着寻找一位走失的徒步旅行者。我们走过长长的队伍,等待他们在悬崖上拍照,有些人脚穿套着塑料袋的运动鞋,还有人穿着短袖,在摄氏五度的寒风中瑟瑟发抖。我们站在队伍的后面,等待因德雷恩给我们拍照;要想获得在巨人之舌的标志性的照片,唯一的办法就是参加有导游的徒步旅行,导游会在10到12米的高处倒挂着为你拍照。

“Do we really want to wait for this picture?” I asked Jacqueline.

"我们真的要等着拍这张照片吗?"我问杰奎琳。

“No,” she replied. “Not really. It’s the scenery along the hike down I’d rather see.”

"不,"她回答,"不见得。我宁愿欣赏徒步旅行时的沿路风光。"

I nodded in agreement. We turned around and began our descent through Norway’s dramatic landscape, taking our time and remembering the rules of fjellvettreglene.

我也点头同意。我们转过身,从挪威的动人风光中走了出来,慢慢回想着自由行走权的规则。

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