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日本天麸罗的真相让你大吃一惊

更新时间:2017/10/22 12:57:05 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

The truth about Japanese tempura
日本天麸罗的真相让你大吃一惊

In 1543, a Chinese ship with three Portuguese sailors on board was headed to Macau, but was swept off course and ended up on the Japanese island of Tanegashima. Antonio da Mota, Francisco Zeimoto and Antonio Peixoto – the first Europeans to ever step on Japanese soil – were deemed ‘southern barbarians’ by the locals because of the direction from which they came and their ‘unusual’, non-Japanese features. The Japanese were in the middle of a civil war and eventually began trading with the Portuguese, in general, for guns. And thus began a Portuguese trading post in Japan, starting with firearms and then other items such as soap, tobacco, wool and even recipes.

1543 年,一艘载有三名葡萄牙水手的中国船前往澳门途中偏离航向,最终登上了日本的种子岛 (Tanegashima)。安东尼奥·达莫塔 (Antonio da Mota)、弗朗西斯科·泽特莫塔 (Francisco Zeimoto) 和安东尼奥·佩肖托 (Antonio Peixoto) 三人是第一批踏上日本国土的欧洲人,被当时的日本人认为是"南方的野蛮人",因为他们来历不明而且长相"奇特",不像日本人。当时,日本人正处于内战之中,最终日本开始与葡萄牙人做生意,通常也是为了购买枪炮。于是,在日本开始有了一个葡萄牙贸易站,从枪炮开始,继之而来的是肥皂、烟草、羊毛、甚至食谱等其他物品。

The Portuguese remained in Japan until 1639, when they were banished because the ruling shogun Iemitsu believed Christianity was a threat to Japanese society. As their ships sailed away for the final time, the Portuguese left an indelible mark on the island: a battered and fried green bean recipe called peixinhos da horta. Today, in Japan, it’s called tempura and has been a staple of the country’s cuisine ever since.

这些葡萄牙人一直留在日本,直到 1639 年,因为执政的幕府将军认为基督教是对日本社会的威胁,他们遭到了驱逐。当乘船离去之前,葡萄牙人在日本岛上留下了不可磨灭的印记:一种粘了面糊油炸的青豆蔬菜——"炸花园鱼"(peixinhos da horta)。如今它被称为天麸罗 (Tempura),已成为日本的一道主要美食。

No-one knows the exact origins of peixinhos da horta. “We know it existed in 1543,” said Michelin-starred chef Jose Avillez when I met up with him at Cantinho de Avillez, one of his acclaimed Lisbon restaurants. “But before that, it’s anyone’s guess.”

没有人知道它的确切起源。米其林星级厨师何塞·阿维列斯 (Jose Avillez) 经营多家著名的里斯本餐厅,在他的其中一家餐厅 Cantinho de Avillez 见到他本人时,他说,"我们只知道 1543 年就已经有它了。但在此之前,就说不清了。"

Green beans, it turns out, changed food history.

事实证明,青豆改变了食物的历史。

However, peixinhos da horta was only one of many dishes the Portuguese inspired around the world. In fact, Portuguese cuisine, still heavily overshadowed by the cuisines of Italy, Spain and France, may be the most influential cuisine on the planet.

然而,"天麸罗"只是世界各地受葡萄牙人启发的众多菜肴中的一种。事实上,在意大利菜、西班牙菜和法国菜的掩盖下,葡萄牙菜仍然被很多人所忽视,但它却可能是地球上最具影响力的美食。

When the Portuguese turned up in Goa, India, where they stayed until 1961, they cooked a garlicky, wine-spiked pork dish called carne de vinha d’alhos, which was adopted by locals to become vindaloo, one of the most popular Indian dishes today. In Malaysia, several staples, including the spicy stew debal, hail from Portuguese traders of centuries past. Egg tarts in Macao and southern China are direct descendants to the egg tarts found in Lisbon bakeries. And Brazil’s national dish, feijoada, a stew with beans and pork, has its origins in the northern Portuguese region of Minho; today, you can find variations of it everywhere the Portuguese have sailed, including Goa, Mozambique, Angola, Macau and Cape Verde.

葡萄牙人来到印度果阿 (Goa) 后,一直待到 1961 年,他们会烹制一道加入红酒的蒜味猪肉美食,名叫"carne de vinha d'alho",后来被当地人变成了一道深受欢迎的印度菜。在马来西亚,包括辣炖汤在内的好几道名菜,都源自几个世纪前的葡萄牙商人。在中国澳门和南方地区,蛋挞是里斯本面包店里的蛋挞的直系后代。而巴西的国菜肉烧 (feijoada),一道豆子和猪肉的炖菜,也起源于葡萄牙北部的米尼奥 (Minho) 地区;如今,在葡萄牙人航行经过的很多地方,包括果阿、莫桑比克、安哥拉、澳门和佛得角,你都能看到葡萄牙美食的变体。

Peixinhos da horta were often eaten during Lent or Ember days (the word ‘tempura’ comes from the Latin word tempora, a term referring to these times of fasting), when the church dictated that Catholics go meatless. “So the way around that,” Avillez said, “[was] to batter and fry a vegetable, like the green bean. And just to add to it, we called it peixinhos do horta, little fish of the garden. If you can’t eat meat for that period of time, this was a good replacement.”

人们通常在大斋节 (Lent) 或四季节 (Ember) 享用"炸花园鱼"("天麸罗"(Tempura)这个词来自拉丁语"tempora",用以指禁食的时间),因为教会规定,这段时间天主教徒不能吃肉。阿维列斯说:"所以我们把像青豆一样的蔬菜粘面糊油炸。如果你不能吃肉,这就是很好的替代品。"

And it had other functions too. “When the poor couldn’t afford fish, they would eat these fried green beans as a substitute,” Avillez said. And sailors would fry the beans to preserve them during long journeys, much in the way humans have been curing and salting meat for preservation purposes for centuries.

它还有其他功能。阿维列斯说,"穷人买不起鱼的时候,他们会吃这些油炸的青豆作为替代品。"长途航行中,水手们会把豆子炸出来,方便保存。在很大程度上,这就像数百年来,人们为了保存食物而制作咸肉和腌肉一样。

Perhaps not constricted by tradition, the Japanese lightened the batter and changed up the fillings. Today, everything from shrimp to sweet potatoes to shitake mushrooms is turned into tempura.

也许不受传统的限制,日本人减少了面糊,也改变了馅料。今天,从虾、甘薯、到香菇,都能变成天麸罗。

“The Japanese inherited the dish from us and they made it better,” Avillez said.

阿维列斯说:"日本人从我们那里继承了这道菜,并把它发扬光大。"

Avillez said Japanese people sometimes turn up at his restaurants and see the fried bean dish and say, “Hey, Portuguese cuisine is influenced by Japanese cuisine.” He added, “And that’s when I say, ‘No, in this case it’s the other way around’.” A Japanese-born sous chef at Avillez’s two-Michelin-starred Lisbon restaurant, Belcanto, even chose to train in Portugal instead of France because he recognised the influence on his home cuisine, particularly in peixinhos da horta.

阿维列斯表示,有时,日本人在他的餐馆里看着他的菜会说:"嘿,葡萄牙菜也受到了日本料理的影响。"他补充道:"我会说'不是,情况恰恰相反'。"在阿维列斯的米其林二星级餐厅,一位出生在日本的副厨师长甚至选择去葡萄牙而不是去法国参加培训,因为他认识到葡萄牙对自己家乡美食的影响,特别是"天麸罗"。

Avillez said his one complaint about the dish, in general, has always been that the beans are often fried in the morning and so they go cold and limp by the time they get to the table later that day. He remedies this by not only cooking them on demand, but by adding a starch called nutrios that keeps them crispy. After the bean is blanched, it gets rolled in the batter of wheat flour, egg, milk, and nutrios and then flash fried.

阿维列斯对这道菜也有怨言。通常,豆子往往早上油炸,等到当天晚些时候上桌的时候,早就凉了而且湿软。为解决这个问题,他只在有客人点这道菜的时候才下锅炸,而且还添加一种叫"nutrios"的淀粉来保持酥脆。豆子被放在面粉、鸡蛋、牛奶和淀粉做成的面糊里裹起来,然后再进行油炸。

Other chefs I talked to in Portugal had their own recipes for the fried green beans, but they didn’t deviate much. “It’s a very simple dish,” said chef Olivier da Costa, when I met up with him at his Lisbon restaurant Olivier Avenida, located in the Avani Avenida Liberdade hotel. “I use a batter of flour, milk, eggs, salt, pepper and beer,” he said. “Beer?” I asked. “Yes! It ferments the batter and the beer foam gives it a better taste.” He didn’t have the dish on his menu at the time so I had to take his word for it.

我在葡萄牙采访过的其他厨师也有各自的炸青豆食谱,但并没有太大区别。我在 Avani Avenida Liberdade 餐厅见到大厨奥利维尔·达科斯塔 (Olivier da Costa) 时,他表示,"这是一道非常简单的菜,我会用面粉、牛奶、鸡蛋、盐、胡椒和啤酒做成面糊。""啤酒吗?"我问。"是的!它能让面糊发酵,而啤酒泡沫让它的味道更好。"当时他的菜单上并没有这道菜,所以我不得不接受他的说法。

One reason why Portuguese love peixinhos da horta so much, da Costa said, was nostalgia. “We all eat it as children and thus have fond memories of it. These days it’s been making a comeback, not just because people are eating more vegetarian food, but because a younger generation are taking more interest in our local cuisine and because they want to be taken back to that simpler time.”

达科斯塔说,葡萄牙人喜欢吃"炸花园鱼"的原因之一是怀旧。"我们小时候都吃过它,因此对它有美好的回忆。如今,它又卷土重来了,不仅因为人们现在吃的素食更多,还因为年轻一代对我们当地的美食更感兴趣,因为他们想要回到那个简单的时代。"

Avillez is taking this newfound interest in super traditional Portuguese cuisine to a new level. Along with his Japanese-born sous chef, he plans to temporarily offer a tasting menu called ‘1543’, the year the Portuguese first showed up in Japan, offering peixinhos da horta and other Portuguese dishes that have inspired Japanese cuisine. Alongside the Portuguese dishes, he plans to serve the Japanese versions that evolved from the Portuguese presence in Japan four-and-a-half centuries ago.

阿维列斯将这种对传统葡萄牙超级美食的兴趣带到了一个新的高度。他和他的日本出生的副厨师长一起,计划临时供应一种名为"1543"的试吃菜单,这是葡萄牙人第一次来到日本的年份,菜单中包括"炸青豆"和其他葡萄牙菜肴,这些菜肴都曾给日本菜带来启发。除了葡萄牙菜,他还计划供应日本风味的葡萄牙菜,这些美食都是四个半世纪以前葡萄牙人带到日本的。

Back at Cantinho de Avillez, an order of peixinhos da horta appeared in front of me. They were rigid like pencils with a lumpy texture and a yellow-ish hue. Each bite was like taking a first bite: crisp, light and super flavourful, the crunchy texture of the batter complimenting the sturdy feel of the bean. The dish has been one of the only consistent items on the menu at Cantinho de Avillez, which opened in 2012.

回到阿维列斯的餐厅,我点的"炸青豆"已经摆在面前。它们像铅笔一样有形,表面凹凸不平,呈淡淡的黄色。每咬一口都回味无穷:酥脆、清淡、超级美味,面糊给硬硬的豆子增添了脆脆的质感。在阿维列斯 2012 年开设的这家餐厅里,这道菜是菜单上一直没有改变的几种菜式之一。

“I can’t take it off,” Avillez said. “My regulars would be enraged.”

阿维列斯说"我没办法去掉它,因为那样我的老主顾会不高兴的。"

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