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打造园区式企业总部有何好处?

更新时间:2017/10/20 12:43:41 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

The rise of the multibillion dollar corporate campus
打造园区式企业总部有何好处?

This was the thought Mae Holland had on her first tour of The Circle’s campus. The landscaping, exercise classes, cafeteria and entertainers had Mae’s head spinning. Compared to the grey cubicle of her previous workplace, the campus was idyllic.

在戴夫·艾格斯(Dave Eggers)的畅销小说《The Circle》里,书中人物美荷·霍兰德(Mae Holland)第一次来到“圆圈”(The Circle)的园区时,脑海里浮现的就是这句话。美景、健身课、自助餐厅和娱乐项目令美荷目不暇接。她之前工作的地方都是灰色的隔间板,与那里相比,这个园区真是如田园般美丽宁静。

Mae’s workplace in Dave Eggers’s bestselling novel The Circle sounds remarkably similar to Apple’s new “spaceship” campus, also shaped in a giant circle.

在畅销小说里,美荷的工作地是一个巨大的环形园区,像极了苹果新建成的"飞船"总部。

The corporate campus might have taken its time to work into popular fiction but the idea of getting all your employees together in one giant university-style space is the continuation of something that started more than 50 years ago.

虚构小说可能到现在才将注意力放到企业园区,但是把所有员工都聚在一个像大学校园一样的大型企业园区,其实只是延续了发端于50多年前的想法。

The suburban campus

郊外园区

Early corporate campuses in the United States were originally designed for research scientists and engineers. Surrounded by landscaped gardens or centred around a grassy quadrangle like an Ivy League university, the campus was a safe, serene workplace.

美国早期的企业园区最初是为研究员和工程师设计的。与常春藤盟校类似,这些地方四周都是风景优美的园林,被郁郁葱葱的树木包裹在中间,使之成为了安全而宁静的工作场所。

In 1942, communications giant AT&T created the first corporate campus, called Bell Labs in New Jersey. General Motors, General Electric and General Life Insurance followed suit with similar suburban campuses in the 1950s. Early campuses had various names – industrial park, research park or technology park – that emphasised a connection to industry and science on the one hand, and nature on the other.

1942年,通信巨头AT&T在新泽西建起了第一个公司园区,名为贝尔实验室(Bell Labs)。通用汽车、通用电气、通用人寿保险(General Life Insurance)也纷纷跟进,在1950年代建立起类似的郊外园区。早期的园区有很多名字——工业园、研究园或科技园——一方面强调与工业和科学之间的联系,另一方面也很看重自然因素。

In post-war America, cities were popularly portrayed as “dangerous”, racially divided, crowded and polluted. The suburban campus became a drawcard in “white flight”, as middle class, white Americans fled for the suburbs. Importantly, campuses were only accessible by car.

在很多人眼中,战后的美国城市"很危险",不仅种族歧视盛行,而且人群拥挤,污染严重。但随着美国的白人中产阶级大举迁往郊区,郊外园区也成了促成"白人大迁移"的一大因素。关键在于,这些园区只有开车才能到达。

The lure of the campus

园区的吸引力

As well as a physical workspace, the campus was a symbolic, cultural and social place. The new campuses were photogenic, promoting the corporation and its values in the media and to potential employees.

除了是一个实实在在的工作场所外,园区还是一个具有象征意义的地方,而且兼具文化和社交功能。新的园区都很上镜,使得企业及其价值观得以通过媒体展开宣传,还能吸引潜在员工。

In Pastoral Capitalism: A History of Suburban Corporate Landscapes, Louise Mozingo argued that the campus could “cloak the corporation in high-minded institutional garb”. A university-like campus signalled that this was not simply a business, but an organisation working towards a higher purpose.

在《田园资本主义:郊区企业景观史》(Pastoral Capitalism: A History of Suburban Corporate Landscapes)一书中,路易斯·莫金戈(Louise Mozingo)认为园区可以"给公司披上高尚的机构外衣"。像大学一样的园区表明这不仅仅是一家公司,还是一家向着更高目标努力的组织。

A campus also suggested a sense of community. With recreational facilities and social spaces, the low-rise campus aimed, symbolically and practically, to promote interaction and collaboration.

园区还透露出社区意识。由于拥有娱乐设施和社交空间,由低矮建筑组成的园区希望能从象征意义和实践意义两个方面促进互动和合作。

As complete environments, corporate campuses expanded the idea of the workplace by including leisure facilities, cafeterias, shopping and service facilities. Playing tennis and drinking coffee on campus became part of an integrated lifestyle curated by the corporation.

作为配套完善的环境,公司园区延伸了工作场所的概念,包含了休闲设施、自助餐厅、购物和服务设施。在园区里打网球、喝咖啡成了企业培育的综合化生活方式中的一部分。

A paternalistic sense of “family” pervaded the carefully designed “home” for employees. As architect Gordon Bunshaft noted “the head man was personally involved and personally building himself a palace for his people that would not only represent his company, but his personal pleasure”. This translated to office design that typically situated women in open plan floors, with the top floors reserved for male managers’ private offices.

在这个为员工悉心营造的"家"里,四处弥漫着"家庭"中常见的家长作风。正如建筑师戈登·邦沙夫特(Gordon Bunshaft)所说:"老板亲自参与进去,为他手下的人亲手打造了一个宫殿,这不光代表公司,还为了取悦他自己。"由此便形成了这样一种环境:女性通常都在开放式办公室里工作,而顶层则是给男性管理者预留的私人办公室。

The 21st Century campus

21世纪的园区

By the 1990s, the possibilities of working from home (or anywhere), outsourcing and offshoring challenged the need for a campus. Committing to so much space represented a liability for businesses in an increasingly digital, economically uncertain environment.

到1990年代,在家办公、外包和离岸外包的兴起对企业园区模式构成了挑战。在一个数字化日益盛行、经济前景越来越不确定的环境中,设计这么大的园区会给企业构成负担。

Changing political landscapes also presented challenges. For example, in 2014 RBS bank and Lloyds considered moving to England at a cost of £1bn ($1.34bn) to each company to manage the “irreversible risk” created by Scotland’s independence plebiscite.

多变的政治环境同样带来了挑战。例如,为了应对苏格兰独立公投带来的"不可逆转的风险",苏格兰皇家银行(RBS)和劳埃德集团(Lloyds)2014年考虑花费10亿英镑(13.4亿美元)搬到英格兰。

Natural disasters and terrorism also raise questions about centralising an organisation in a single location. Given these risks, why would Apple build a $5bn campus?

自然灾害和恐怖主义也引发了人们对这种模式的质疑:把整个组织集中在同一个地点的做法究竟是否可取?然而,既然面临种种风险,苹果为什么还要花费50亿美元建设一座新的园区?

The 21st Century Silicon Valley model, complete with sports and recreational facilities, free cafeterias, healthcare and commuter buses – as well as institutionalised casual dress and flexible working hours - seems to be an ideal egalitarian workplace. Indeed, a study identified “having a corporate campus” as a critical factor in attracting and retaining staff.

21世纪的硅谷模式提供了体育和娱乐设施、免费员工餐厅、医疗服务和交通车,另外还有休闲服的上班服装和灵活的工作时间,似乎创造了理想中人人平等的职场环境。事实上,有一项研究甚至将"拥有企业园区"列为吸引和挽留员工的关键元素。

The compressed culture of the campus can promote the idea that work is fun, palaces of informality to house workers driven by a belief in a technologically-driven utopia. But the reality might still be sitting for long hours in front of a computer screen.

园区里这种紧凑的文化会让人们认为工作是一件乐趣十足的事情,认为这个不拘小节的宫殿里聚集着一群相信科技能够创造乌托邦的劳动者。但实际上,他们可能依然要在电脑屏幕前一动不动地坐上很长时间。

Campuses can also be exclusive utopias with limited interactions with their surroundings.

企业园区还是一个与世隔绝的乌托邦,与周围的环境进行的互动非常有限。

Just as “white flight” contributed to the suburban low-rise and the horizontal corporate campus, the shift from rural to urban environments is shaping the vertical campus. For example, Chinese internet provider Tencent’s campus rises 250m above ground, it’s a new model driven by necessity in constrained cities.

"白人大迁移"造就了郊区那些由低矮建筑组成的水平化企业园区,与之类似,从农村迁往城市的大环境也造就了如今的垂直化园区。例如,中国互联网公司腾讯的园区大楼就高达250米,这是为了适应紧凑的城市布局而形成的一种新模式。

Not limited to tech firms, the corporate campus has been embraced by airlines like Qantas and financial institutions like ANZ. Swiss-based pharmaceutical Novartis campus is building a campus composed of buildings by high-profile architects with construction scheduled until 2030.

不只是科技企业,Qantas等航空公司和ANZ等金融机构也在积极拥抱园区模式。瑞士诺华制药正在建设的园区里有很多大楼都是由著名建筑师操刀设计的,预计要到2030年才能建成。

And the Spanish-based Telefonica campus hosts 14,000 employees, a population higher than that of 90% of Australian towns.

西班牙Telefonia公司的园区共有1.4万员工,澳大利亚90%的小镇都没有这么多人口。

But corporate campuses are not simply big offices. Their popularity over the past fifty years suggests the form is here to stay. A central campus offers an organisation the opportunity to materialise their culture, brand and sense of purpose in the physical landscape.

但企业园区不只是宽敞的办公室。它之所以能在过去50年一直流行,表明这种形式的确有其自身的价值。一个集中建设的园区可以让组织有机会把自身的文化、品牌和使命感物化在实实在在的景观之中。

For employees, it is not just a place to work, but a place they will want to stay and play, eat and socialise. But, as Mae discovers in The Circle, the campus might not be turn out to be the utopia it appears to be.

对员工来说,这不仅是一个工作场所,还是一个让你愿意在那里休闲娱乐、就餐和社交的地方。但正如美荷在“圆圈”里发现的那样,那个园区或许不会像它表面看起来那么乌托邦。

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