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参观布拉格教堂回忆刺杀纳粹行动

更新时间:2017/10/19 11:20:48 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

A prague church that defied Nazi rule
参观布拉格教堂回忆刺杀纳粹行动

Prague – the city of 1,000 spires – has no shortage of incredible churches. But only one possesses a vault pockmarked with bullets that draws more visitors than its Baroque edifice above.

布拉格,一座拥有一千座教堂尖塔的城市,从不缺乏引人注目的教堂。但是只有一座教堂比其他任何巴洛克风格的建筑都吸引了更多的游客,教堂的穹顶上还残留有子弹凹坑。

A short walk from the city’s largest square, Karlovo Náměstí, on Resslova Street stands the Cathedral Church of Sts Cyril and Methodius, known informally by locals as the Parachutists Church. Its significance might easily be missed were it not for the memorial plaque on which a priest and a paratrooper flank the names of those who gave their lives here as part of an extraordinary act of heroic defiance against the brutal Nazi regime. Having lived in Prague for almost a decade, I have visited most of its famous monuments and religious spaces. But I invariably bring visiting friends and family here and never fail to find it a deeply humbling experience.

查理广场(Karlovo Náměstí)是布拉格最大的广场,从广场步行不远就走到了瑞斯洛瓦街(Resslova Street),矗立着圣西里尔和圣美多德教堂(Cathedral Church of Sts Cyril and Methodius),被当地人俗称为伞兵教堂(Parachutists Church)。纪念碑两侧刻着牧师和伞兵的名字,中间刻有为反抗纳粹残暴统治而牺牲性命的人的名字,以纪念这些人的英勇行为。若不是这块纪念碑,恐怕伞兵教堂很容易被人忽视。我在布拉格生活将近十年,大多数著名古迹和宗教圣地都参观过,但总会带朋友和家人来这里,从来没人觉得这里不值一游。

It is more than 75 years since 18 June 1942, when seven Czech and Slovak airmen involved in Operation Anthropoid – the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, acting Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia and the third highest-ranking Nazi – made their last stand in the eerie basement. The killing of Heydrich, a key architect of the Final Solution, was to be one of the greatest acts of wartime resistance in occupied Europe.

追溯到75年之前,那是1942年6月18日,7个捷克和斯洛伐克的伞兵参与类人猿行动(Operation Anthropoid)——暗杀莱因哈德·海德里希(Reinhard Heydrich),担任波希米亚和摩拉维亚保护国之总督(Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia)、第三帝国纳粹德国的大将——在地下室内完成了他们的最后使命。刺杀"最终解决方案"(Final Solution)的主要制定者海德里希无疑是战时抵抗的伟大行动,对被占领的欧洲具有重要意义。

Today, the National Monument to the Heroes of the Heydrich Terror, as the church’s basement is now known, attracts 60,000 visitors annually. The crypt, located behind a huge metal door that divides it from the main exhibition space, is much as it would have been when the young Czech and Slovak soldiers sought refuge here. It’s a setting that will be familiar to history buffs who have come across this remarkable story thanks to recent film adaptations such as Anthropoid and The Man with the Iron Heart, adapted from Lauren Binet’s Prix Goncourt winning novel HHhH.

现今,著名的刺杀海德里希英雄纪念馆(National Monument to the Heroes of the Heydrich Terror)位于教堂地下室内,每年吸引着6万名游客前来参观。一扇金属大门将其后的地下室和主要展区分隔开,地下室仍大部分保留着捷克和斯洛伐克伞兵藏身时的模样。看过最新的改编电影《类人猿行动》和《刺杀盖世太保》的历史迷对这个伟大的刺杀行动非常清楚,对地下室的环境设置一定要非常熟悉。其中,《刺杀盖世太保》改编自法国劳伦特·比奈特(Lauren Binet)的畅销二战历史小说《HHhH》。

The gun battle began in the church above, which the SS attempted to storm in the early hours of the morning. They had been tipped off by Karel Čurda, a fellow British-trained Czechoslovak parachutist who collaborated with the Gestapo in exchange for a new identity and one million Reichsmarks. Today the church functions primarily as a place of worship and is only open to tourists at weekends: the task of commemorating Operation Anthropoid is left to the museum and crypt below.

枪战开始于教堂地面上,纳粹党卫军(SS)企图在清晨攻击教堂。行动遭到英国受训的捷克斯洛伐克伞兵卡莱尔·库达(Karel Čurda)泄密,向盖世太保告密以换取新身份和100万帝国马克(Reichsmarks)赏金。现在教堂主要用于礼拜场所,只在周末向游客开放:博物馆和地下室用于纪念类人猿行动中牺牲的伞兵。

Downstairs, the atmosphere is sombre. Bronze busts of the seven men who gave their lives stand near the deep stone shafts cut into the wall to hold coffins. It was in this crypt that the paratroopers who remained alive after the initial shootout in the church above entrenched themselves. They managed to hold out for hours against 700 Waffen SS and Gestapo troops who had the building surrounded; in desperation, the Nazis resorted to flooding the basement with fire hoses. Low on ammunition and with the water level rising, the Czech soldiers took their own lives rather than face capture; some shot themselves, others took cyanide.

下楼后,环境异常昏暗。7名英勇牺牲士兵的半身铜像靠近深深的石井,嵌入墙壁,牢牢地支撑着棺木。在教堂地面首轮枪战之后,伞兵们就是退到这个地下室内,才得以藏身暂时保住了性命。700名纳粹党卫队和盖世太保的军队将教堂重重围住,但伞兵们仍然殊死搏斗;无奈之下,纳粹分子采用烟熏、水淹等种种手段。最后,弹药用尽,地下室水位上升,捷克士兵不愿被俘,毅然赴死,有的人饮弹自杀,有的则服毒自杀。

This moving chapter in the nation’s history is of great importance to Czechs today, explained museum curator, Petr Hampl. “Czechs, primarily because of the Munich Agreement [an international treaty signed in 1938 that allowed Hitler to annex significant chunks of Czechoslovak territory], didn’t have the opportunity to fight against the Nazis directly, so it has a huge symbolic significance. It shows that we fought, despite the fact our country was occupied, and we never sided with the Nazis,” he said.

这个历史感人篇章对今日的捷克人意义重大,博物馆馆长彼得·汉普尔(Petr Hampl)解释道。"捷克人,主要因为《慕尼黑协定》[1938年签订的国际性条约,将捷克斯洛伐克领土中的重要地区割让给希特勒统治下的纳粹德国],没有机会同纳粹德国直接抗争,因此这一历史事件具有巨大象征意义。这表明,虽然我们国家已被占领,但是我们坚决反对同纳粹分子为伍,坚决抵抗,"他说。

Heydrich had been sent to Prague in September 1941 as governor of the Czech territory, as it was felt his predecessor, Konstantin von Neurath, had been too lenient. The bloody crackdown Heydrich instigated earned him the fearsome moniker ‘The Hangman’.

1941年9月,海德里希被派往布拉格担任捷克地区的总督,原因是他的前任长官康斯坦丁·冯·纽赖特(Konstantin von Neurath)太过仁慈。海德里希发起血腥镇压,有着"刽子手"等恐怖称号。

It wasn’t long before the Czechoslovak government-in-exile began plotting Heydrich’s assassination in revenge for his brutality. Josef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš were selected to carry out the vital mission. Both had fled to Britain to join the Czechoslovak army-in-exile and were subsequently trained by the Special Operations Executive: the so-called ‘Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare’ charged with conducting espionage and sabotage in occupied Europe. On 29 December 1941, the pair were parachuted into Czechoslovakia by the RAF.

很快,捷克斯洛伐克流亡政府开始策划暗杀海德里希的行动,以回击他的恐怖残暴。朱瑟夫·加布切克(Josef Gabčík)和杨·科比奇(Jan Kubiš)被选中执行这一重要任务。二人都是在捷克军队后流亡到英国,随后受到空中特勤团训练:别名"非绅士战争部"(Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare),负责在占领后的欧洲开展间谍和破坏活动。1941年12月29日,二人由英国皇家空军空降在捷克斯洛伐克。

But for their daring undertaking to succeed, Gabčík and Kubiš needed support on the ground. They had the help of five other British-trained Czechoslovak paratroopers – Josef Bublík, Jan Hruby, Josef Valčík, Jaroslav Švarc and Adolf Opálka – with whom they would eventually make their legendary last stand. Although none of these other men wielded a weapon directly at the Reichprotector themselves, they all played an essential role in the operation along with the equally heroic Czech resistance networks.

为了保证刺杀任务顺利完成,加布切克和科比奇需要地面援助。另有5名英国受训的捷克伞兵帮助他们,包括约瑟夫·布波利克(Josef Bublík)、杨·赫鲁伯(Jan Hruby)、朱瑟夫·沃尔茨克(Josef Valčík)、雅罗斯拉夫·斯瓦兹(Jaroslav Švarc)、阿道夫·奥帕卡(Adolf Opálka)。在这些伞兵的帮助下,加布切克和科比奇最终才能完成刺杀行动。虽然这些士兵没有直接将枪口对准第三帝国守护者,但是他们和同样英勇的捷克抵抗战线一道在战场上发挥着重要作用。

On 27 May 1942, Gabčík and Kubiš ambushed Heydrich’s car in the Prague suburb of Kobylisy as the governor’s vehicle was forced to slow down at a hairpin bend in the road. Gabčík stepped out in front of the black Mercedes convertible and attempted to open fire, but his Sten sub-machine gun jammed. Heydrich ordered his driver to stop, then stood up and returned fire. Kubiš took the opportunity to throw a modified anti-tank grenade at the vehicle, which exploded, blowing off a door. It was the shrapnel injuries sustained in this explosion that triggered the septicaemia that eventually killed Heydrich eight days later.

1942年5月27日,加布切克和科比奇在布拉格郊外柯布利锡(Kobylisy)突袭总督海德里希乘坐的汽车,导致汽车不得不在道路急转弯处减速。加布切克突然跳到黑色敞篷奔驰车前方,正欲扫射,没想到司登冲锋枪卡壳了。海德里希命令司机停车,起身开火反击。科比奇乘机朝车内扔出改进的反坦克榴弹,瞬间发生爆炸,车门炸飞。弹片嵌进海德里希体内,八天后引发败血症死亡。

Gabčík, Kubiš and Valčík, who had been appointed lookout, fled the scene and eventually made their way to a hideout in the basement of the Cathedral Church of Sts Cyril and Methodius organised by the Czech underground in co-operation with Bishop Gorazd, the church’s Orthodox priest. They were concealed there for three weeks. By the time the huge Nazi-led manhunt reached its conclusion, they had been joined by the other British-trained Czech paratroopers who had supported the operation, until the commandos totalled seven in number.

加布切克、科比奇和沃尔茨克负责望风,有幸脱身,藏到圣西里尔和圣美多德教堂的地下室内。主教戈拉兹德(Bishop Gorazd)是教堂东正教牧师,同捷克人一同在地下建立了地窖。伞兵们在地下室躲藏了三个星期。纳粹分子进行大规模搜捕,最后锁定此处。当时,支援此次行动的其他几个英国受训伞兵已经前来汇合,伞兵人数共计7人。

The abundant handwritten notes left in various languages at the crypt’s entrance demonstrate how the parachutists’ heroism still has the power to move even the grandchildren and great-grandchildren of those who fought in World War II. I saw copious red paper poppies, a British symbol of wartime sacrifice, bouquets of fresh flowers and candles with messages like ‘Kluci děkujeme! Nikdy se navzdame!’ (Thanks boys! We will never surrender!). One unsigned note in English read simply: ‘Your courage is beyond what I can imagine.’

地下室的入口处用不同的语言书写了大量留言,充分说明伞兵的英勇行为仍然影响着第二次世界大战中奋勇抗战的子子孙孙。我还看见许多红纸制作的罂粟花,在英国象征着为战争献出了生命,还有一些新鲜的花束,一些蜡烛,上面还留言:"感谢你们!我们绝不屈服!"其中一条英语留言没有署名,内容很简单:'你们的英勇超乎我的想象。'

Heydrich’s assassination changed history, causing the Allies to immediately revoke the Munich Agreement and ensuring that the Sudetenland, the Czechoslovak borderlands annexed by Hitler in 1938, would be returned following the German defeat. It also provoked terrible reprisals – including the destruction of the villages of Lidice and Ležáky – that bolstered sympathy to the Czech cause across the globe. Thousands worldwide named their daughters Lidice as an act of solidarity, ensuring those massacred would never been forgotten.

海德里希刺杀行动改变了历史,使同盟国迅速废除了慕尼黑协定,并要求德国战败后归还1938年分割给希特勒的苏台德区(Sudetenland)及捷克斯洛伐克的边境地区。此次暗杀也引起了可怕的报复行动,毁灭利迪策(Lidice)和莱夏基(Ležáky)两个村庄,进一步加深了世界各地人民对捷克的同情。成千上万的人民给女儿取名为利迪策,以示友好团结,确保遭到屠杀的同胞永远不被遗忘。

“Awareness abroad is not small,” Hampl observed. “The bravery of the paratroopers and their helpers creates a very powerful story that visitors are interested in, regardless of which country it took place in.”

"这一事件在海外也引起不小的回响," 汉普尔说。"尽管刺杀事件发生在捷克,但伞兵和支援小组的英勇行为对世人的启发却是没有地域性的。"

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