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葡萄牙香肠“不但好吃还能救命”

更新时间:2017/10/18 11:12:09 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

The unlikely sausage that saved lives
葡萄牙香肠“不但好吃还能救命”

In Manteigaria Silva, one of Lisbon’s oldest delis, not much has changed since 1928. Cured hams dangle from the ceiling, port and Madeira wines compete for shelf space and slabs of golden cheese await the blade. And alongside the lombo (air-cured pork) and chouriço (chorizo) lies a sausage so thoroughly Portuguese that a 2011 public vote declared it one of the nation’s seven gastronomic wonders: alheira.

Manteigaria Silva是里斯本历史最悠久的熟食店之一,1928年以来,这家店几乎没有太大变化。天花板上悬吊着熏火腿,货架上拥挤地摆放着波特酒和马德拉白葡萄酒,一块块金黄的奶酪块静静等待着客人的关顾。而在风干猪肉(lombo)和辣味香肠(chouriço)的旁边,摆着一种葡式风味浓郁的香肠,这就是在2011年被票选为葡萄牙七大美食之一的蒜肠(Alheira,不用猪肉,而用其他肉类制成的香肠)。

In countries that eat sausages, a high proportion of filler is not generally considered a positive. But in Portugal, alheira, a garlicky affair stodgy with breadcrumbs, is highly prized. And it’s much more than just comfort food. In a time when Jews were being persecuted in Rossio Square, just metres from where Manteigaria Silva’s cream awning extends today, alheira likely saved hundreds, maybe thousands, of souls.

就算是在香肠受欢迎的国家,人们也会觉得大部分填料不那么健康。而在葡萄牙,人们对混合着面包屑的蒜肠则喜爱有加。它不仅仅是一款爽心美食。在Manteigaria Silva铺面几米开外的罗西奥广场(Rossio Square),当年大批犹太人在此遭受迫害,蒜肠可能在当时挽救了数百甚至数千人的生命。

Every dish can tell a million stories, if only there’s someone to hear them. Yet Portugal’s cuisine is more narrative-heavy than most, a complex tapestry of invasions and colonisations that slips and slides between continents and religions.

只要有人愿意听,每道菜都可以有讲不完的故事。而与世间大多数美食相比,葡式料理更具备厚重的叙事性,它就像是一张由入侵历史和殖民故事交织而成的细密又繁复的挂毯,在不同大陆和宗教之间辗转飘零。

“Like many dishes in Portugal, the most popular and time-honoured ones have stayed with us over many centuries from the period of Moorish rule – also known as a golden era for Jews in Western Europe,” Paolo Scheffer, an expert on Lisbon’s Jewish history, explained.

"像葡萄牙的众多菜肴一样,最受欢迎和最古老的葡式美食诞生在多个世纪前的摩尔人统治时期——这一时期也被称为西欧犹太人的黄金时代,"专攻里斯本犹太史的专家保罗·谢费尔(Paolo Scheffer)解释道。

From the 8th Century, the sophisticated Muslim culture from North Africa that outsiders called the Moors ruled much of Iberia, including the hilly city known as Al-Ushbuna. A Jewish community had long lived and flourished here, and Jews and Muslims lived in harmony.

公元八世纪起,由北非侵入的穆斯林统治了伊比利亚半岛大部分地区,包括丘陵城市阿尔乌斯布纳(Al-Ushbuna),他们带来了纷繁复杂的穆斯林文化,外族人称他们为摩尔人。此后,这里建立起了一个长期繁荣的犹太社会,犹太人和穆斯林彼此和睦相处。

From marzipan and rosewater pastries to soups, stews and sausages, citizens of both religions left their gastronomic mark on what is today the city of Lisbon. “We have Moorish sausage, Moorish fish dishes and even Moorish broth, which is now a seafood dish called cataplana,” Scheffer observed. “But those dishes would have adhered to Judaic and Islamic dietary laws without the popular ingredients added today like shellfish, pork and rabbit.”

从杏仁饼、玫瑰酥点,到汤肴、炖菜和香肠,两大宗教的人民都为今天的里斯本留下了美食的印记。"我们有摩尔香肠和摩尔鱼,甚至还有摩尔炖汤,这是现在是一种名为cataplana的海鲜菜式,"谢费尔观察到,"但这些菜肴都遵守犹太教和伊斯兰教的饮食规定,没有添加如今流行的烹饪食材,比如贝类、猪肉和兔肉。"

By the 12th Century, when Christian crusaders first roared through Lisbon, raping and murdering Muslims, Jews and fellow Christians alike, the city already had its own culinary culture: Christian elements, such as pork and shellfish, merged with this established set of flavours. Later, as Portuguese navigators spread across the globe, ingredients like tomato, chilli and black pepper would leave their mark in turn. At times, Scheffer said, it’s hard to separate what’s now identified as Christian Portuguese food from the established Arab and Jewish cuisines.

十二世纪,基督教十字军第一次横扫里斯本。他们洗劫和谋杀穆斯林、犹太人,甚至一些同为基督徒的人也受到迫害。这时的城市已经有了自己的烹饪文化:以猪肉和贝类为代表的基督教特色食材开始和与原有的当地烹饪风味相融合。后来,随着葡萄牙远征的足迹遍布全球,番茄、辣椒和黑胡椒等食材和佐料开始在葡式料理中留下印记。谢费尔指出,现在的葡萄牙基督教饮食与阿拉伯和犹太人的传统菜式非常相似。

Following the tradition set by the Moors, medieval Portugal, even after the Christian conquest, was a generally tolerant place. However, in 1492, Ferdinand of Aragon and his warrior queen Isabella of Castile defeated the last Moorish emirate – Granada – and took the Alhambra Palace as their own.

被基督教征服后,中世纪的葡萄牙仍然延续着摩尔帝国的传统,成为了一片宽容并蓄的土地。然而,到了1492年,阿拉贡的费迪纳德二世(Ferdinand)和他的战争女皇伊丽莎白·德卡斯提尔(Isabella of Castile)击溃了最后一个摩尔酋长国格拉纳达(Grannada),并占领了阿罕布拉宫(Alhambra Palace)。

Avid Catholics, Ferdinand and Isabella believed that practising Jews might encourage those who had converted to Christianity to go back to their old religion. They appointed interrogators to persecute the Jews in their kingdom: their rule of terror would be known as the Spanish Inquisition.

费迪纳德和伊丽莎白是狂热的天主教徒,他们认为虔诚的犹太教徒可能会鼓励那些已经皈依基督教的人重拾自己过去的宗教信仰。他们指派审讯人员迫害国内的犹太教徒,这种恐怖统治手段就是历史上称为西班牙宗教裁判所(Spanish Inquisition)的时期。

As a result, tens of thousands of Jews who had flourished in Moorish Al-Andalus were thrown out of Spain. They fled to Portugal, particularly Lisbon, but the city did not stay safe for long. After overcrowding caused a plague outbreak, Christian citizens forced all Jews to live outside the city walls.

因此,曾经在摩尔统治时期安居乐业在安达卢斯(Al-Andalus)的万千犹太人被驱逐出西班牙。他们逃到葡萄牙,主要集中在里斯本,但这座城市也没有提供太长时间的庇护。爆炸式的人口增加导致瘟疫爆发,基督徒公民强令所有犹太人必须住在城池之外。

By 1496, Portugal’s Jews were also forced to convert to Christianity, or leave. Ten years later, rampaging citizens and sailors killed thousands of converted Jews in a citywide pogrom. In 1536, the Inquisition formally arrived in Portugal, and soon both practising Jews and Jews who had converted to Christianity were among the unfortunates parading in penance or burnt at the pyre in Rossio Square.

到1496年,在葡萄牙居住的犹太人也被迫改信基督教,不愿意改变信仰的人只能离开。十年后,一场大屠杀爆发,愤怒的公民和水手在全市范围内屠杀了数以千计改变了宗教信仰的犹太人。1536年,宗教裁判所进入葡萄牙活动,不久之后,不论是虔诚的犹太教徒还是已经转变为基督教徒的犹太人,几乎都在罗西奥广场经受了游街忏悔、火刑焚烧等残酷迫害。

Disguising themselves as Christian converts, Portugal’s secret Jews went to huge lengths to conceal their religion – from writing Hebrew prayers in Catholic prayer books to combining Jewish words with Catholic rituals. (One community in Belmonte kept its faith alive in secret for more than 400 years.) In the rugged mountains of northern Portugal’s Trás-os-Montes, one of these hidden communities created Portugal’s best-known alheira sausage: Alheira de Mirandela.

葡萄牙的秘密犹太教徒将自己伪装成基督徒,竭力掩饰自己的宗教信仰:他们在天主教祈祷书中藏着希伯来语的祷告词,将犹太教的内容与天主教仪式相结合以掩人耳目。贝尔蒙特地区(Belmonte)甚至有一个社区将这一传统秘密传承了四百多年。而深藏在葡萄牙北部德拉什乌什蒙特什地区(Trás-os-Montes)崎岖山脉中藏身的犹太人,创造了葡萄牙最知名的蒜肠:米兰德拉蒜肠(Alheira de Mirandela)。

In Trás-os-Montes every home preserved pork sausages to see the family through the winter, hanging them from the rafters in meaty coils. Jews – who did not eat pork – were conspicuous for their missing sausages.

在德拉什乌什蒙特什地区,每个家庭都会腌制猪肉香肠以备过冬,并把它们挂起来。不吃猪肉的犹太人会因为不挂香肠而显得十分显眼。

“They were seeking refuge from the Inquisition,” Scheffer explained. “So the town of Mirandela developed a bread sausage that could fool informers and local zealots who denounced them to the Inquisition for not eating pork.”

谢费尔解释说:"当地的告密者和宗教狂热分子会向宗教裁判所举报谁不吃猪肉。为了躲避宗教裁判的迫害,于是米兰德拉镇发明了一种面包(和猪肉以外的其他肉类制成的)香肠,可以愚弄这些举报者。"

To Ashkenazi Jews, Scheffer observed, the Alheira de Mirandela seems very like kishke, a kosher sausage stuffed with fat, meal and flavourings that’s often served in the slow-cooked Jewish Sabbath bean stew known as cholent. The Jews of Trás-os-Montes traditionally made theirs with bread and chicken, although a present-day Alheira de Mirandela is no longer kosher and can include everything from pork to game, or even be vegetarian.

谢费尔发现,对于德系犹太人(Ashkenazi Jews)来说,米兰德拉蒜肠似乎与犹太肠(kishke)非常相似,后者是一种塞满了肥肉、谷粉和调料的犹太香肠,经常在犹太安息日的炖豆汤(cholent)中出现。传统上,德拉什乌什蒙特什地区的犹太人会用面包和鸡肉进行烹饪,但现在的米兰德拉蒜肠不再严格遵循犹太教规,可以填充猪肉,野味,甚至蔬菜等任何食材。

Today, the alheira has travelled far beyond the mountains. Rather like the British banger, it’s a comfort-food staple. You won’t find it in fine dining joints, but it’s ubiquitous in supermarkets, and appears alongside steak and eggs in workers’ cafes or neighbourhood diners.

今天,米兰德拉蒜肠早已翻越层层山脉而广为人知,它与英式香肠类似,是一种家常美食。你不会在高档的菜单上看到它,但它在超级市场随处可见,也会和牛排鸡蛋一起出现在路边早餐店或邻家小馆中。

At Zé dos Cornos, a white-tiled little place below Lisbon’s Castelo de São Jorge, I watched local workers chow down from huge rectangular plates. The Alheira de Mirandela came glossy, grilled and horseshoe-shaped, alongside a fried egg, French fries and white rice. In the smoky and garlicky sausage, chunks of juicy game mingled with chunks of sour, soggy breadcrumbs.

Zé dos Cornos餐厅位于里斯本圣乔治城堡(Castelo de São Jorge)脚下,是一幢白色小屋,菜肴盛放在巨大的矩形餐盘上,我目睹了当地人在此大快朵颐。烤成马蹄形的米兰德拉蒜肠看起来光泽诱人,搭配有煎蛋、炸薯条和白米饭。在烟熏的蒜味香肠里填满了多汁的肉块和湿润的酸味面包屑。

The Moors, most of whom, despite their North African ancestry, had known no home but Al-Andalus, stayed in Lisbon for a long time. Even today, the hillside district where they lived is known as Mouraria (Moorsville). But it was not until the early 19th Century that Jews began to return and, even as Hitler rose to power, there were no more than 1,000 Jews in Lisbon.

尽管摩尔人拥有北非血统,但绝大多数人除了安达卢斯以外仍然难以追溯他们具体的故乡,只知道他们在里斯本停留了很长时间。直到今天,他们所聚集的山坡地区仍被称为Mouraria,意为"摩尔人乡镇"。但直至19世纪初,犹太人方才开始回归,不过即使希特勒上台,在里斯本的犹太人也不超过一千。

Yet, during the early days of World War II, the neutral city again became a refuge for Europe’s Jews. Defying the dictator Salazar, Portuguese diplomat Aristides de Sousa Mendes issued travel documents to thousands of Jews: more than 10,000 Jews would set sail from Lisbon to safety across the Atlantic.

然而,在第二次世界大战初期,中立城市里斯本又成为欧洲各地犹太人的避难所。葡萄牙外交官阿里斯蒂德斯·德苏萨门德斯(Aristides de Sousa Mendes)抵住来自独裁者萨拉查(Salazar)的压力,向数千名犹太人发放了旅行证件:超过一万名犹太人从里斯本起航穿越大西洋寻求栖身之地。

Today, although towns and cities across Portugal are beginning to rediscover their Jewish history, the alheira is more a part of mainstream Portuguese cooking than a symbol of the people who created it. Like the Portuguese word for ‘Saturday’ – 'Sábado', for the Jewish Sabbath – and the brilliant Arab-influenced tiles that illuminate Lisbon's teetering streets, the sausage is an indicator of a past as cosmopolitan as it is complex.

如今,葡萄牙各地都开始重新挖掘犹太历史,但与其说米兰德拉蒜肠是当年伪装下的犹太人的象征,不如说它是葡萄牙主流美食的一部分。就像葡萄牙语里的"星期六(Sábado)"来自犹太安息日(Jewish Sabbath)一词、里斯本的大街小道铺满了深受阿拉伯风格影响的瓷砖一样,香肠是过去的标志,见证了一段不同文化共融的纷繁历史。

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