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遗失在加拿大的一块美国“飞地”

更新时间:2017/10/16 11:24:22 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

The US land lost in Canada
遗失在加拿大的一块美国“飞地”

It all started when my father mentioned the Walleye War. Despite growing up in the Twin Cities, I’d never heard of Minnesota’s Northwest Angle, or its fishing disputes with Canada that caused some Angleites (as the locals there are known) to take action to secede from the United States. I was curious about these northerners and this isolated area of my home state. I was hooked.

一切都从我父亲提到鼓眼鱼之争(Walleye War)时开始。虽然我在双城——明尼阿波利斯与圣保罗(Minneapolis-Saint Paul)长大,却从未听说过明尼苏达州(Minnesota)的西北角(Northwest Angle),也没听过那里与加拿大的渔业纠纷,以及后来导致“角民”(Angleites,西北角当地居民)采取脱离美国的措施。我对这些北方人和我家乡所在的这个偏远地区充满了好奇。好奇心让我不能自拔。

In early July, my retired parents and I embarked on our upstate adventure. To drive to the Northwest Angle, a bulge of land at the top of the state disconnected from greater Minnesota, you must cross through Canadian territory. The Angle became part of the US due to an oversight: during the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the border drawn between the US and what was then British territory was designed to cut through the Lake of the Woods area at a northwest angle, but the map they used misrepresented the lake’s location.

七月初,我和已经退休的父母踏上了北上的探险旅程。西北角是明尼苏达州北端一块凸出的部分,与州内广大其他地区并没有土地相连,要驱车前往这里,就必须穿越加拿大的领土。西北角由于一个人为疏忽而成为美国的一个部分:在1783年订立《巴黎条约》(Treaty of Paris)时,在美国和当时(北方的)英国领土之间的边界应该是穿越过西北角的森林湖(Lake of the Woods),但当时所使用的地图却搞错了湖的位置。

Surveying and negotiating ensued. The treaty of 1818 laid down the northern boundary for the US along the 49th parallel, and dropped a line due south from the ‘most northwesternmost point’ of Lake of the Woods to meet it. As a result, the Northwest Angle protrudes from the northern edge of the state like a chimney, and is the northernmost point in the contiguous United States.

随之而来的是测量和谈判。1818年签订的条约沿着北纬49度线划定了美国北部边界,并且从森林湖的"最西北端"划下一条线连接到北纬49度线。结果西北角这块土地就像烟囱一样突出在美国北部边缘,成为美国本土的最北点。

We waited at the Canadian border station with no other cars or people in sight. A few minutes later, a border control agent emerged from the building, collected our passports and handed us a sheet of paper detailing how to reach the orphaned piece of Minnesota. The instructions warned that failure to report on each trip from one country to the other may result in a substantial penalty. We needed to check in at ‘Jim’s Corner’ once we reached the Angle, or we would be subject to a $5,000 fine. If we failed to report when leaving, the fine would be $1,000 – plus seizure of our vehicle.

我们在加拿大边境站等候,视野所及没有其他车辆,四下也空无一人。几分钟后,一个边境管理人员走来,收取我们的护照,并交给我们一张纸,上面详细说明了怎样才能抵达明尼苏达州这个孤零零的“飞地”。说明中还警告,如果未经报告,从一国进入另一国境内,可能会导致严惩。到达西北角后,我们就必须在"吉姆角"(Jim's Corner)报到登记,否则,我们将面临5000美元的罚款。如果在离开时没有报到登记离开,罚款将是1000美元,我们的车也将被没收。

The final 20 miles of the 60-mile drive through Manitoba, Canada, was on a gravel road. Our tyres kicked up pieces of rock, and dust swirled in our wake. Swarms of flies chased us, attracted to the car’s heat and dark colour.

在加拿大马尼托巴省60英里车程中的最后20英里,我们进入一条碎石路。车轮过处,扬起一片沙石尘土。深色的汽车及其所散发的热量吸引了成群的苍蝇尾随在后。

No-one warned me about the bull flies. With bodies like bees, they were downright Jurassic. When we reached Jim’s Corner, a small shed with a mounted telephone box and video screen, they pinged against our windows. Outside, I encountered the flies on the video call to US Border Control, swatting while attempting to read our passport numbers aloud.

没有人警告过我那里有体型巨大的苍蝇。它们的体形如蜜蜂,简直就是侏罗纪的生物。我们抵达了吉姆角,这里有一个小木屋,墙上设有一个电话和一个屏幕,这些巨大苍蝇撞着我们的车窗砰砰作响。我到车外面与美国边境管理局(US Border Control)进行视频通话报到登记,我一边大声努力念出我们的护照号码,一边用力挥动手臂试图赶走苍蝇。

After the seven-and-a-half-hour drive from St Paul, my hometown, we finally reached Jake’s Northwest Angle resort, owned and operated by Paul and Karen Colson. Paul’s grandfather, Frank Colson, nicknamed Jake, homesteaded in the Angle around 1917 and founded Jake’s resort in 1945. Karen took us to Lute’s knotty-pine-panelled cabin, built by Paul and named after his late grandmother, Lucy, nicknamed Lute. A freshly baked loaf of bread was waiting for us – a family tradition for guests of Jake’s started by Paul’s mother, Celeste, and carried on by Karen.

从我的家乡圣保罗(St Paul)驱车跋涉七个半小时后,我们终于抵达了杰克的西北角度假村(Jake's Northwest Angle),这里由保罗和凯伦·科尔森夫妇(Paul and Karen Colson)所有和经营。保罗的祖父是弗兰克·科尔森(Frank Colson),绰号"杰克"(Jake),他在1917年左右在西北角安家置业,并在1945年建立了杰克度假村。卡伦带我们去了由松木筑成的卢特小木屋(Lute's cabin),它由保罗建造,并以他已故的祖母露西(Lucy),绰号"卢特"(Lute)命名。等待我们的是刚烤出炉的面包——这是一个招待客人的家庭传统,从保罗的母亲塞莱斯特(Celeste)开始,到凯伦继续发扬。

Walleye fishing is a big draw to the area, so the next morning we amateur anglers embarked on an outing with Paul and his friend Linda LaMie, the Northwest Angle’s sole schoolteacher who has been teaching for more than 30 years in Minnesota’s only remaining one-room schoolhouse. Since we would be crisscrossing in and out of Canadian waters, we purchased one-day Ontario sport-fishing licenses.

鼓眼鱼(Walleye)垂钓在当地很有吸引力。鼓眼鱼的白色鱼肉鲜美多汁,深受明尼苏达人喜爱。所以次日一早,我们这些业余垂钓者就与保罗和他的朋友琳达·拉梅(Linda LaMie)一起出门。琳达是西北角唯一的教师,她在明尼苏达州唯一一所只有一间教室的学校教学长达30多年。因为我们会多次进出加拿大水域,所以我们购买了一天的安大略(Ontario)游钓许可证。

Paul told us how in 1998, due to Canadian laws restricting non-resident fishing, the Northwest Angle succeeded in getting a constitutional amendment introduced in Congress to let them secede from the US, since the unfavourable fishing laws drastically impacted their livelihoods. Non-Canadians fishing in Canadian waters were allowed to keep up to four walleyes, a succulent, flaky white fish revered by Minnesotans, but only if they stayed at Canadian resorts. If they stayed on the US side of Lake of the Woods they couldn’t keep anything, which hurt business for US resorts.

保罗告诉我们,1998年,加拿大修订法律限制非居民钓鱼,这个法令极大地影响了西北角居民的生计,于是,一些人推动美国国会颁布宪法修正案,允许西北角脱离美国。非加拿大人在加拿大水域垂钓时,最多可以保留四条鼓眼鱼。但前提是他们必须呆在加拿大这一边。如果他们到了森林湖的美国水域,就一条鱼也不能留,这样就损害了美国度假地的生意。

Minnesota countered with a bill proposing hefty fees totalling millions of dollars a year for the Canadian National Railway crossing through northern Minnesota. The Walleye War dispute was resolved by Canada rescinding the fishing laws and the US dropping the fees for the Canadian National Railway; the two countries reached an agreement on fishing limits and licensing.

明尼苏达州随后出台一项反制法案,对穿越北明尼苏达州的加拿大国家铁路(Canadian National Railway)每年征收数百万美元的高额费用。结果是,加拿大废除上述限制捕鱼法令,美国也放弃对加拿大国家铁路征收费用,鼓眼鱼之争平息;美加两国就捕鱼限制和许可问题达成了协议。

Paul assured us we would catch enough fish. “I’ve never not had my shore lunch,” he said. In 34 years of doing shore lunches, where Paul cooks fresh catch for guests on uninhabited islands, no group went hungry. I hoped we wouldn’t be the first.

保罗向我们保证,我们会钓到足够多的鱼。"我从未在湖滨没钓到鱼挨饿过,"他说。34年来,保罗总是在无人居住小岛上为钓客烹制新鲜美味,他从未让人挨过饿。我希望我们也不会破例。

He steered his boat into the vast lake. The Lake of the Woods area has one million acres of water and 14,522 islands, the majority of which are uninhabited. “A lot of times you won’t see anything but islands in any direction,” he said. Hues of steely-blue water and lush forest greenery surrounded us. Slate-grey cliffs towered above our boat.

保罗把船开向广阔的湖面。这片森林湖包括100万英亩水域和14,522个小岛,其中大部分都无人居住。"很多时候,你会看到四面八方都是小岛",他说。我们四周是灰蓝色的湖水和郁郁葱葱的森林。从船上抬头向上望去,灰色的悬崖高高耸立。

“Isn’t this an awesome backyard to have?” Linda said. I was struck by the unspoilt beauty.

"家后院就有这片天地是不是很棒?"琳达说。我被这里保存完好的美景所打动。

We baited our hooks. I asked Linda how she came to live here. She had been teaching first grade in Warroad, Minnesota, for four years when a teaching opportunity in the Angle arose. “The principal said, ‘Do I have the assignment for you’, and I thought, ‘This would really be fun’. The first day I came, I was made to feel so welcome. I fell in love with the colourful residents and beautiful land.”

我们给鱼钩装上鱼饵。我问琳达是怎么来到这里的。她本来在明尼苏达州沃罗德(Warroad)教一年级,四年后,就碰上了来西北角教书的机会。"校长对我说,'我是不是该把这个任务交给你呢?'我想,'这工作应该很有意思。‘第一天来到这里,我感到自己很受欢迎。我爱上了这里有趣的居民和美丽的土地。"

There were no phones when Linda moved in the late ‘80s. She sent hand-written letters to her family and friends from the Angle’s tiny post office, where Paul’s Grandpa Jake served as the first postmaster. Today, the Angle has a general store, a restaurant and a nine-hole golf course that sometimes has one or two fewer holes if the water is high. The community doesn’t have traffic lights or a hospital, but modern advances such as the internet and Amazon Prime have changed living in the Angle. “We’ve been Primin’ right off the bat,” Paul said.

上世纪八十年代末琳达搬来时,这里还没有电话。她从西北角的小邮局把手写的信寄给家人和朋友,保罗的爷爷杰克就是首任邮政局长。今天,西北角有一个杂货店、一家餐馆和一个九洞高尔夫球场,如果水面升高的话,有时还会少一两个洞。西北角这里没有红绿灯,也没有医院,但是像互联网和亚马逊金牌服务(Amazon Prime)这样的现代科技进步也已改变了西北角人们的生活方式。"我们已经是亚马逊金牌会员了,"保罗说。

Living in this remote area has its drawbacks, especially commuting to work or school. After students graduate from Linda’s sixth grade, they attend school in Warroad, about 60 miles to the south. Linda noted Angle kids have one of the longest school bus rides in North America – nearly three hours roundtrip – leaving at 5am and going through border control four times a day. Some kids commute from nearby Flag or Oak Islands, which makes their travel times even longer.

住在这个偏远地区也有缺点,特别是上下班或上下学的通勤。从琳达的学校六年级毕业后,学生们就要去南面60英里的沃罗德(Warroad)上学。琳达说,西北角的孩子们乘坐校车的时间是北美最长的,往返需要近三个小时。他们每天早上五点离家,每天要通过边境管理处四次。有些孩子住在附近的旗帜岛(Flag Island)或橡树岛(Oak Island),他们的通勤时间会更长。

Linda often faces a difficult commute herself. She and her husband, Ron, have a home on Bear River in a remote part of the Angle that isn’t reachable by car, truck or SUV; depending on the season, she travels by boat, ATV or snowmobile. During ‘freeze-up’ and ‘break-up’ (when the ice is forming or melting), travel can be challenging. One evening when they headed home too late and it became pitch dark, Linda instructed her kids to feel wild rice grasses on either side of the boat, “like braille”, so that the boat stayed in open water. Another time, Linda was eight and a half months pregnant and commuting alone. When she got stuck, knee-deep in mud, she dragged fallen trees from the forest to create a makeshift ramp for her ATV and drove herself out of the muck.

琳达自己时常也要面对困难的通勤。她和丈夫罗恩(Ron)住在西北角熊河(Bear River)的一个偏僻地带,这里汽车、卡车或越野车都无法接近;在不同季节,她会乘坐小船、全地形车或雪地摩托出行。在"结冰期"和"融冰期",出行会很有挑战性。有一天晚上,他们回家太晚,四周一片漆黑,琳达让她的孩子们触摸船两侧的野稻草,"就像盲人触摸点字一样",这样才能保证船航行在开阔的水面上。还有一次,琳达怀孕八个半月,独自一人通勤,她被困在齐膝深的泥里,于是,她从树林里拖出倒下的树干,为她的全地形车做了一个临时斜坡,这样才把自己从淤泥中救了出来。

By the afternoon, everyone had caught a fish except me. Almost on cue, I felt a tug on my line. “Pull up!” Paul yelled. I jerked the rod and started awkwardly reeling. A small walleye broke the water’s surface and twisted at the end of my line. With eight fish, we had more than enough for our lunch.

到了下午,大家都钓到了一条鱼,只有我一无所获。就在这时,我感觉到我的鱼线动了一下。"拉起来!"保罗喊道。我猛地一拉鱼竿,然后开始笨拙地卷线。一小条鼓眼鱼在我的鱼线末端破水而出,扭动挣扎。我们一共钓到八条鱼,足够我们的午餐了。

Paul dropped anchor at a rocky, uninhabited island, and we climbed up to a tiny clearing while he unloaded a portable stove and ingredients for our lunch. After filleting part of our catch, he cooked canned corn, baked beans and wild rice with onions, peppers, mushrooms and cream of mushroom soup. He prepared fish three ways: poached, blackened and fried. After more than three decades of making shore lunches, he had the meal prep down to a science.

保罗在一个无人居住小岛上抛锚,我们爬上一块小小的空地。他从船上卸下一个便携式炉子以及我们的午餐食材。他先把我们捕获的鱼切片,然后把罐头玉米、烤豆和野生米饭,还有洋葱、辣椒、蘑菇配上蘑菇汤煮在一起。他采用三种方式料理鱼:水煮、烟熏和油炸。他在湖边野炊长达三十多年,已经将烹饪变成了一门科学。

While Paul cooked, he told me his grandfather Jake’s brother, Jim, also homesteaded in the area; Jim’s Corner, where we checked in at the shed with US Border Control, is named after him. I asked Paul about social life in the Angle, especially during frigid Minnesota winters with only 59 permanent residences and 110 year-round residents, give or take.

保罗在做饭时告诉我,他祖父杰克的哥哥吉姆过去也住在这个地区;我们在美国边境管理处报到登记的小木屋——吉姆角就以他的名字命名。我询问保罗西北角的社交生活情况,特别是在明尼苏达州寒冷的冬天。这里大约只有59户永久居民,全年常住人口只有110人。

“That is my singular regret of the Angle – there aren’t many people our age,” Paul, 47, said. “It’s kind of a weird deal. You’ve got to be comfortable with yourself.”

47岁的保罗说,"这是我在西北角生活的唯一遗憾:我们这个年龄的人并不多。这是一种奇怪的生活。你必须自得其乐。"

The following day, Linda invited us to her house. Paul and Karen’s youngest son, Samuel, took us to a dock on Bear River, where Ron picked us up in his boat. Wild rice grasses undulating in the wind bordered our aquatic highway; we slalomed through the water, careful to avoid beaver dams. Ron docked near their log house on a hill. We sat on a balcony overlooking the river. Hummingbirds hovered at a hanging feeder, and then darted back into woods thick with white pine, black spruce, balsam and birch.

第二天,琳达邀请我们到她家做客。保罗和卡伦的小儿子塞缪尔(Samuel)带我们去熊河的一个码头,罗恩在那里用船接我们。我们在水上高速公路乘船行进,两旁是随风起伏的野生稻草;我们小心翼翼地绕开河狸筑的水坝。罗恩把船停靠在他们木屋附近。我们坐在阳台上,俯瞰河水。蜂鸟在一个高挂的喂食器上盘旋,然后又飞回树林里,那里密布着白松、黑云杉、香柏和桦树。

“There’s a pretty big learning curve coming up here and learning to survive,” Linda said. “It’s not an easy life. You have one person working and one person helping. Ron does most of the cooking, baking, taking care of the house and motors.”

"要在这里生存,需要学习的东西可真不少。"琳达说。"这里的生活并不容易。你得一个人工作、一个人帮忙。烹饪、烘焙,照料房子和马达这些事情大部分都是罗恩在做。"

Ron nodded. “It takes two. I’d never be able to exist here without Linda,” he said.

罗恩点点头。"的确需要两个人。如果没有琳达,我永远都无法在这里生存。"他说。

Linda said the kids she teaches learn survival skills at an early age. Angle kids grow up hunting, and they don’t have problems with gun violence like other areas of the state or country. “These kids, they’re so fortunate in so many ways,” she said. “It’s really this family atmosphere here you don’t have anywhere else.” Ron talked about the Angle’s innocence compared with other parts of the country where he’s lived, including New Mexico and South Dakota.

琳达说,她学校教的孩子在很小的时候就学会了生存技能。西北角的孩子们在打猎中长大的,他们没有像明尼苏达州或美国其他地方的人那些枪支暴力问题。"这些孩子在很多方面都很幸运,"她说。"这里的家庭氛围是你在其他地方所没有的。"罗恩谈到,他曾经在新墨西哥州(New Mexico)和南达科塔州(South Dakota)生活过,和那些地方相比,西北角的民风更为淳朴。

“It’s another world,” he said.

"这是另一个世界,"他说。

We toured the rest of the house and settled in the dining room near the wood-burning stove used during bitter Minnesota winters. Ron served us his homemade cookies and coffee.

我们参观他们家的其他部分,在烧木材的炉子旁的餐厅坐下,在明尼苏达州的冬天,他们就靠这个炉子取暖。罗恩给我们端上了自制的饼干和咖啡。

Before dinner on nearby Flag Island we went to see Minnesota’s only remaining one-room schoolhouse. Linda handed me a brochure, which was taped on her classroom door and titled, ‘What’s with the Bump on Minnesota: The Who, What, Where, When, Why and How story by the Angle Kids who live there’.

我们在附近的旗帜岛上吃了晚饭,在那之前,我们先去参观了明尼苏达州唯一一所只有一间教室的学校。琳达递给我一本挂在她的教室门上的小册子,上面写着《明尼苏达州凸出部分的由来:生活在西北角的孩子们的故事》。

“Living at the Angle is like living together in a very large family,” Jack Goulet, one of Linda’s sixth grade students, had written.

琳达六年级的一名学生,杰克·古利特(Jack Goulet)写道:"在西北角,我们就像生活在一个大家庭中。"

Standing in the schoolhouse with Linda, I thought the kids living in the bump on Minnesota were part of one lucky family.

与琳达站在教室里,我想,明尼苏达州凸起的西北角的孩子们都生活在一个幸运的大家庭中。

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