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取代“hygge”的瑞典词语“lagom”

更新时间:2017/10/14 10:59:48 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

The Swedish word thats displacing hygge
取代“hygge”的瑞典词语“lagom”

Move over hygge, there’s a new Scandinavian lifestyle trend to embrace.

不要再说"hygge"了,现在我们要拥抱新的斯堪的纳维亚生活潮流。

Popularised over the past few years, the Danish ethos of hygge denotes momentary bliss and cosiness, but at its core aims for contentment at specific moments. But the lifestyle industry has moved on, and the Swedish principle lagom (pronounced: laaaw-gum) – with its virtue of moderation and balance – has been crowned the next ‘it word’ by the likes of Vogue and ELLE.

在过去几年,来自丹麦的"hygge"思潮(发音接近"呼嘎",类似"小确幸"的概念)代表了短暂的幸福和安逸,但是其核心只是追求特定时刻的满足。而生活方式的演进仍在继续,瑞典的"lagom"(拉戈姆),由于其中庸和平衡的特性,成为了《Vogue》和《ELLE》时尚期刊评选的下一个"关键词"。

It makes sense that lagom is resonating with people across the globe, says Niels Eék, co-founder and psychologist behind wellbeing app Remente. “At one end, we are excessive in our work habits, connectivity and indulgences. On the other hand, we are advised to limit ourselves by trying a new fad diet or a trendy detox,” he said.

"lagom"在全球产生了巨大的共鸣,健身应用程序"Remente"的联合创始人及心理学家尼尔斯·艾克(Niels Eék)说道。"一方面,我们沉溺于工作习惯、人际关系和个人嗜好。另一方面,我们又不断被建议节食减肥或进行时髦的排毒治疗,"他说。

“In a world of contrasts and contradictory advice, lagom hits the middle – allowing people to enjoy themselves, but stay healthy and content at the same time.”

"在一个充满对比和矛盾的建议世界,lagom恰好处于中间——它支持人们享受,同时保持健康的身体和满足的心态。"

But while this new global focus on Swedish lifestyle is flattering for Swedes, lagom isn’t a concept that can be easily wrapped into a marketing strategy.

尽管吸引了全球关注的瑞典生活方式让瑞典人感到沾沾自喜,但是要将lagom这一概念进行市场营销并不容易。

The first time I became fully aware of this ethos was when I moved to Sweden from the US more than seven years ago. My husband and I were invited to dinner at a friend’s home, which was sparsely decorated in neutral hues and light wood, with a throw rug here and there. Our host, J?rgen, was a professional violinist, and his other guests were accomplished musicians with various orchestras in Stockholm – a normal day for them could involve playing at the Nobel Prize ceremony.

我第一次真正注意到这一思潮是七年前我从美国移民到瑞典的时候。我的丈夫和我受邀去朋友家聚餐,发现主人家只是用中性的色彩和浅色木头做了简单的装饰,而且到处铺着小地毯。我们的东道主约尔根(J?rgen)是一个专业的小提琴家,而他邀请的其他客人也都是斯德哥尔摩各个乐团的音乐家——对于他们来说,在诺贝尔奖典礼上演奏稀松平常。

Nevertheless, as if coordinating with J?rgen’s sparsely decorated apartment, the unspoken dress code seemed to be well-worn jeans, flowing tops for the ladies and more form-fitting shirts for the men. With shoes parked by the door, we were all sporting socks.

然而,好像是与约尔根简单装饰的房子一样,人们心照不宣的着装原则都是老旧的牛仔裤,女士身穿宽松的上衣,而男士则是合身的衬衫。鞋子脱在门外之后,发现我们都穿着运动袜。

But beyond the laidback vibe, there was something else in the air. As accomplished as the group was, there was no gratuitous peppering of achievements or divulging of personal information. The guests all fluently spoke an average of three languages each, yet were quick to dismiss their prowess because they weren’t native speakers of some of those languages.

但是除了轻松的氛围之外,还可以感受到其他的东西。虽然每个人都颇负盛名,但是他们并没有到处炫耀自己的成就,也不会轻易泄露个人信息。所有的客人们平均都会讲三种语言,但他们的神通很快便消解,因为毕竟其中的一些语言并非母语。

The conversation ebbed and flowed – from their latest performances to current projects and travels – yet seemed to be subconsciously moderated by everyone at the table so it wasn’t too much or too little in any way. Filled with long stretches of silence, it dipped into a mental space that seemed perfectly comfortable for them but kept me itching to fill the void with some noise – any noise.

谈话声时起时伏,从最近的演出到目前的项目和旅行,看上去餐桌上的每个人都在下意识地进行调节,因此既不显得嘈杂,又不过于安静。聚餐充满了长时间的沉默,似乎深入到了心灵空间,对于他们而言完美契合,但是却让我总想发出一些声音——哪怕噪音也好。

That was when lagom began to reveal itself to me as ‘appropriate group conduct’ – even among friends and colleagues who had known each other for years.

这是lagom作为"适宜的集体活动"所带给我的第一印象——即使是与已经熟识多年的朋友和同事在一起。

Etymologically, the word ‘lagom’ is an Old Norse form of the word ‘law’, and it also means ‘team’ in Swedish. But culturally, the roots of lagom are tied back to communal times of the Vikings, when they gathered around the fire after a hard day’s work and passed around horns filled with mead, a honey-fermented beverage. Everyone was expected to sip just their fair share so others could have enough to drink as well. This ‘laget om’ (‘sitting around the team’) has been shortened to ‘lagom’ over centuries.

从语源上讲,lagom是的古诺尔斯语(Old Norse)形式的"法则"一词,而在瑞典语中它还有"团队"的意思。但从文化上讲,lagom的来源可以追溯到维京人共同社会时期,那时他们在完成一天的辛勤劳作后聚集在火堆周围,互相传递着盛满蜂蜜酒(一种蜂蜜酿造的饮料)的犄角。每个人都只饮一小口,以便其他人可以享用自己的份额。这种"laget om"(围绕在团队周围)经过几个世纪的演化,缩写成了"lagom"(拉戈姆)。

Often said to be untranslatable, lagom is usually described as the Goldilocks principle of ‘not too little, not too much, just right’, which implies everything in moderation. But the true reason it’s difficult to translate is because it mutates, changing meaning in different situations and within various contexts.

lagom一词通常被认为是无法翻译的,一般描述为"不多不少,恰如其分",而这正是中庸的完美诠释。但是它难以翻译的真正原因在于其多变性,它在不同的情境和语境下具有不同的意思。

It could mean ‘appropriate’ in social settings, ‘moderation’ in food, ‘less is more’ in interior decor, ‘mindfulness’ in wellbeing, ‘sustainability’ in lifestyle choices and ‘logic’ in business dealings. All these carry a connotation of ‘optimal’ decision-making.

在社交环境下可理解为"适宜",在描述食物时为"温和",在室内装饰时为"简单就是美",在养生方面为"正念",在生活方式的选择上为"可持续性",而在商务往来中则是"合乎逻辑"的意思。而所有这些都具有相同的内涵,那就是一种"最优"的决策。

Lagom in its most powerful form means that whatever contextual decision you make is the very best one for you or for the group you find yourself in.

lagom最根本的意思是指,无论在何种语境下,你所做的决定对于你或你的团队都是最佳的选择。

For example, once while waiting at Stockholm Arlanda Airport for delayed luggage arriving from Lapland, my fellow passengers stood silently around the conveyor belt. Those travelling together shared a few words, but overall the air was devoid of conversation. In the US, I would have turned to my fellow passengers to banter loudly about the baggage delay. But here in Sweden, it seemed that stating the obvious through small talk was unnecessary.

例如,曾经有一次我在斯德哥尔摩亚兰达机场(Stockholm Arlanda Airport)等待从拉普兰(Lapland)迟到的行李时,同行的乘客都在传送带周围安静地站着。那些一起旅行的偶有交谈,但是整体的气氛都非常安静。如果在美国,我很可能会与同行的乘客开始对迟到的行李大声地开起玩笑。但是在瑞典,闲聊行李迟到并无必要。

The physical and mental space that the passengers were keeping was lagom at play – a way of reducing stress in an already stressful situation, and not inconveniencing each other through excessive gestures or talking too much.

乘客们所保持的身体和心灵世界正是lagom的内涵所在——一种在已经充满压力的环境下减压的方式,拒绝通过多余的姿态或交谈给彼此带来不便。

Returning to the Goldilocks principle, we are steered towards the heroine’s own perfect portions: the right chair, the right bowl of porridge, the right bed. But we never really consider Papa Bear or Mama Bear’s own perfect portions. Because in Sweden, their chairs, bowls and beds are also ‘lagom’ – optimal for them.

回到金发姑娘原则,我们都知道女主角自身的完美部分:合适的椅子,合适的粥碗,合适的床。但我们却从未考虑过熊爸爸和熊妈妈的完美部分。因为在瑞典,他们的椅子、碗和床也都是lagom——最适合他们的。

My lagom state is not the same as your lagom state, but we enter joined spaces of recognition when we use the word because we can connect our individual ideals of what lagom means. For example, if I said the food was ‘lagom’ salted, in your mind, as the listener, you can envision the food perfectly salted to your own taste. My palate may prefer a saltier version than yours, but you fully understand the context.

我的lagom状态与你的lagom状态也许并不相同,但是在使用这个词的时候我们彼此认可,因为我们个人理想的lagom其实是相通的。例如,如果我说食物的咸淡"lagom",作为聆听者,你可以想象食物也刚好符合你的口味。我的味觉可能比你的重一点,但是在这种情境下你也可以完全理解。

Lagom wants to push us to a space of individual contentment while creating harmony within whatever groups or societies we find ourselves. In an ideal world, this would work perfectly. But it is human nature to feel envious – and this is why some Swedes process lagom with mixed feelings.

lagom让我们在寻求个人满足的同时与我们所在的任何群体或社会中的其他人和谐相处。在理想世界里,这一原则可以完美地运行。但是嫉妒是人之常情——这也是为什么瑞典人在应对lagom时也情绪复杂的原因。

Since one person’s lagom isn’t exactly the same as another’s, a negative side of lagom can manifest within group settings. This side insists that people conform to ensure harmony and not bring their individual levels of lagom into the group because it can cause jealousy and breed resentment.

由于一个人的lagom与另一个人的并不完全一致,因此在不同的群体环境下,lagom也可能带来负面影响。这要求人们应努力确保和谐,不将个人层面的lagom带入到群体中,因为可能造成嫉妒和招致仇恨。

The term’s usage has even evolved because of this to also mean ‘uninspiring’ and ‘boring’. And so many Swedes want to disassociate themselves from the word. There’s even a hashtag #NoMoreLagom.

这一术语的用法也由此而产生了进化,增加了"不令人兴奋的"和"无聊的"意思。而很多瑞典人都想取消与这个词的联系。甚至出现了主题标签#拒绝lagom。

Nevertheless, instead of looking at lagom as just ‘moderation’, which carries with it more blasé connotations like middle-of-the-road, mediocre or austere, re-centring lagom back to its optimal core carries a more holistic view of the choices we make in our lives.

然而,除了将lagom视作"中庸",意味着像中间路线、平庸或简朴一样略显厌世的内涵外,重新关注lagom最佳的核心理念是我们在生活中做决策时应该采取的更加考虑全局的态度。

“Lagom teaches us how to avoid both excess and extreme limitation, allowing us to better understand what makes us happy and what works for our own, unique, mental wellbeing,” Eék said. “By adopting a lagom mindset, we teach ourselves to avoid extremes of mood or feeling.”

"lagom教育我们如何避免过剩和极端限制,让我们更好地理解快乐之道,符合我们自身独特的心理健康特点。"艾克说道,"通过接纳lagom心态,我们告诉自己避免情绪和感情走向极端。"

So, the next time you find yourself travelling around Sweden and are met with long stretches of silence and measured responses, chances are it has absolutely nothing to do with you and you’ve encountered lagom in action.

所以,下次前往瑞典旅行时,如果你发现长时间的沉默,人们惜字如金,那么很有可能其实与你无关,而只是遇到了人们的lagom状态。

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