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度假时为什么更容易超额消费?

更新时间:2017/10/12 13:37:56 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

Why so many people overspend on their holidays
度假时为什么更容易超额消费?

Esta Shah always plans a fun activity for the day following her holiday. It’s not a coping strategy to combat the back-to-work blues – rather, it’s a budgeting trick she says prevents her from wild overspending.

伊斯塔·沙阿(Esta Shah)总是为假期结束后的第二天规划有趣的活动。这么做不是为了应对节后综合征——这其实是一种预算技巧,为的是避免自己挥霍无度。

Knowing the fun will continue when you get back “keeps you from spending on [unnecessary] things during the last days of vacation to keep the fun going,” says Shah, a marketing professor at the University of Cincinnati.

沙阿是辛辛那提大学(University of Cincinnati)的市场营销教授,她表示,如果知道度假归来后快乐仍将继续,"就能避免你在假期最后几天购买不必要的东西。"

Continuing the fun post-holiday keeps her from chasing happiness while on holiday because she knows it’s awaiting her back home. Ultimately, it allows her to spend more wisely during the days she’s travelling rather than splurging on items she doesn’t need just before she flies home.

把乐趣延续到假期结束之后,她就不必在假期中追求快乐,因为她知道快乐在家里等着自己。最终,这会让她在旅行过程中更加明智地花钱,而不是在飞回家之前把钱花到一些根本不需要的东西上。

Collective blindspot

普遍现象

Many people return from holidays to higher-than-expected credit card bills. In the US, the overspend can represent a serious chunk of household income: 74% of Americans admitted falling into debt of more than $1,100 after returning from a holiday, according to a 2017 survey by personal finance website Learnvest.

度假归来之后,很多人的信用卡账单都会超出预期。在美国,超支可能在家庭收入中占据相当大的比例:根据财经网站Learnvest 2017年进行的一项调查,74%的美国人都承认在度假回来后会背负超过1,100美元的债务。

In the UK, many travellers spend an average of £532 ($718) per person even before they’ve  left the country – on anything from duty-free shopping to trip-related clothing, according to research from the Association of British Travel Agents.

根据英国旅行社协会(Association of British Travel Agents)的研究,英国有很多旅行者甚至在离开自己的国家之前,人均花费就达到了532英镑(718美元)——包括从免税商品到与行程相关的服装等各种消费。

“I have worked with a lot of people who have no problems in their financial life – except on vacation,” says Brad Klontz, a psychologist and financial adviser in Hawaii who works with clients on spending.

"我服务过的很多对象在自己的财务生活中从来都不出问题——只有度假的时候才是例外。"心理学家兼财务顾问布拉德·克隆茨(Brad Klontz)说,他专门为客户提供开支方面的建议。

Hard cash

货币因素

So why do people lose control of their spending when travelling?

人们在旅行期间的开支为什么会失控呢?

There are a host of subconscious reasons behind spending more on holiday and it’s difficult to keep them in check, says Klaus Wertenbroch, marketing professor at INSEAD business school’s Singapore campus.

INSEAD商学院新加坡校区市场营销教授克劳斯·沃腾布拉赫(Klaus Wertenbroch)表示,度假期间的花费之所以会增加,其实是许多潜意识因素在作怪。

For one, currency differences can trick you into feeling you have more money to spend when abroad, says Wertenbroch.

沃腾布拉赫表示,首先,货币差异可能导致你出国时感觉手头有更多的钱可以花。

A 2007 paper he co-authored found that that the nominal (face) value of money affects how people perceive its real value: if you’re in a country where the face value of the foreign currency is a fraction of your home currency, you’re likely to spend more.

他在2007年与人合著的一篇论文中发现,货币面值会影响人们对其真实价值的感知:如果目的地的外币面值远低于你自己国家的本国货币面值,你的花费就有可能增加。

For example, if you’re travelling from Canada to Indonesia, your one Canadian dollar is worth roughly 10,800 rupiah. You’re more likely to overspend with a wallet stuffed with high-denomination bills, Wertenbroch says, because doing currency conversions on the fly is mentally taxing – you’re more likely to make a biased evaluation in favor of the face value, rather than the real value, of the price posted in the foreign currency.

例如,倘若从加拿大前往印度尼西亚,你的1加元大约相当于10,800印尼盾。沃腾布拉赫表示,由于钱包里塞满了很多高面值的货币,你的花费更有可能超出预算。原因在于随时换算货币很费脑子——你更有可能形成一种评估偏见,更看重用外币标价的票面价值,而非真实价值。

‘Malleable mental accounting’

可塑心理账户

Travellers can be susceptible to setting unrealistic budgets that are either too low or too high because of so-called “malleable mental accounting,” which increases the tendency to spend, points out Shah. That’s because we are likely to justify our spending based on present circumstances rather than sticking to a strict budget to control spending.

沙阿指出,人们出门旅行的时候很容易制定不切实际的预算(既有可能过低,也有可能过高),因为他们心理上控制预算的能力太差。我们在旅行的时候很容易会根据当时所处的环境来为自己的花费寻找正当理由,而不遵守严格的预算来控制花费。

For example, if you budgeted spending only $100 per day on holiday, you can spend another $30 on food by categorising food as an everyday purchase rather than strictly holiday spending. As a result, people justify that they can actually spend an extra $30 on food without recognising that they are already spending more than they do back home. “Your budgets are not as good as you think they are – things fall apart based on your motivations,” she says.

例如,如果你的预算是度假期间每天只花100美元,但如果你心里想食物是日常开销,不论在家或出门旅游都要吃,那么你很可能每天还会多花30美元吃吃喝喝。因此,人们为自己每天在食品上额外花费的30美元找到了正当理由,而不承认他们的花费已经超过预算。"你的预算并不像你想象得那么好——事情会因为你的动机被全部打乱。"她说。

And conservative budgets don’t always work either, adds Shah. For example, setting aside $1,000 for a weeklong trip, realising you’ve allocated too much money to spend and still had $500 left over on the last day, makes it easier to splurge on the day prior to flying home, according to Shah’s research. “When you put together those rounded figures [via a budget], that creates a ‘licensing’ effect,” which provides a mental excuse to spend more money, she explains.

沙阿表示,保守的预算也未必总能起到效果。例如,根据她的研究,如果你为一个星期的旅行制定了1,000美元的预算,但却发现预算过多,返程前一天还剩下500美元额度,那就更容易在飞回家的前一天挥霍一笔。她解释道:"当你计算出预算金额的时候,你花钱就有理由了。"这在内心里给你提供了一个借口,让你可以增加开支。

Feeling pressed for time in a now-or-never type of situation can also influence your spending, says Deepak Chhabra, an associate professor at Arizona State University who specialises in tourism.

专门研究旅行问题的亚利桑那大学(Arizona State University)副教授迪帕克·察布拉(Deepak Chhabra)表示,在机不可失的环境中面临压力,也会对你的开支产生影响。

Whether it’s finding a one-of-a-kind holiday souvenir or splurging on dinner, “you are viewing life from a short-term perspective and can get carried away,” says Chhabra. Where you’re from can affect how much time you have to spend on holiday – a 2016 study by travel site Expedia found those from the US, Japan and South Korea are less likely to use all their holiday leave than Europeans. Chhabra thinks those with less time per year for holidays could be more eager to take the plunge when it comes to spending.

无论是找到独此一件的旅行纪念品,还是吃一顿奢侈的晚餐,"你都是从短期角度来看待生活,这会让你失去理智。"察布拉说。你来自哪个国家,会对你的度假时间长短产生影响——旅行网站Expedia在2016年进行的一项研究发现,美国人、日本人和韩国人不像欧洲人那么有可能用光所有年假。察布拉认为,年假日数较少的那些人更有可能在度假期间花更多的钱。

Viewing friends’ trips via social media can inspire a sort of FOMO (fear of missing out) that can influence especially younger travellers to overspend because they tend to value experiences more than other generations, says Chhabra.

察布拉表示,通过社交媒体查看朋友的旅程可以激发某种“你有我也要有”的心理,这对年轻旅行者的影响尤其明显,导致他们的花费超出预算,因为他们比其他年龄段的人更重视体验。

The pull of seeing acquaintances spend money on travel can often be a more powerful motivator to spend more while travelling than seeing an advertisement, she says. “You want to be on par with what [others] are doing,” she says.

她表示,与看广告相比,看到熟人在旅行中花钱往往更能激励人们在自己的旅行中增加开支。"你会跟别人攀比。"她说。

So what should you do?

应该如何应对这种情况?

Rather than creating a budget based on what you’re planning to spend, treat your holiday like you would daily life, recommends Shah.

沙阿建议,不要根据你的想花多少钱来制定预算,而应该把度假消费当成日常生活来对待。

Get acquainted with the currency and how much items cost prior to the trip. Reading about transport, food and entertainment costs can make prices seem more familiar once you’re actually on the trip. Set up a daily – rather than a weekly – budget based on your research of how much you expect to pay for food, transport, activities and anything else you plan to purchase while traveling so it’s easier to track.

还应该在启程前熟悉旅游地的货币价格以及物品的价格。查看机场、餐饮和娱乐费用可以让你在踏上行程之后对价格更加熟悉。如果你对自己准备在食品、交通、活动以及旅行中购买的各种物品上花费的资金展开了一定的研究,那么在制定预算时,就应该以天为单位,而不是以星期为单位,这样就更容易跟踪各种费用。

Finally, attempt to pay for the holiday within a short period of time; incurring flight and lodging expenses over a few months makes it easy to lose track of how much you’ll spend on each portion, adds Shah.

最后,沙阿还补充道,应该尽量在短时间内支付节假日的费用;在几个月的时间内分散支付机票和住宿费,也容易导致你无法追踪自己在每个部分上的开支。

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