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斐济村庄不同寻常的待客之道

更新时间:2017/10/11 14:27:02 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

The Fijian villages that require approval to enter
斐济村庄不同寻常的待客之道

As sailors planning to spend a couple of months exploring Fiji’s outer islands, my family of three needed to be well-prepared. We had fishing gear, staple foods and a first aid kit with remedies for everything from sunburn to jellyfish stings. We also had a few sarong-type wraps called sulas and a big pile of earthy-smelling roots called kava.

由于船员们打算花费数月时间来探索斐济的外岛,因此我们的三口之家也需要做好准备。我们带了钓鱼装备、主食和急救箱,从晒伤到水母蜇伤的各种药物一应俱全。我们还带了一些名为"苏拉斯"的围裙状外套和一堆泥土味很重的卡瓦根。

Kava, known locally as yaqona, is a mild analgesic and stress reliever made from the root of the piper methstyicum plant. It’s also an important part of Fijian culture. Custom holds that a visitor needs to ask permission to enter a village, explaining their friendly intentions and offering a tangled bundle of kava roots as sevusevu, a gesture of respect. Much the way a Western guest brings a bottle of wine to the host of a dinner party, I’d assumed.

卡瓦,当地人称之为“yaqona”,是一种由胡椒植物制作而成的温和的镇痛缓压剂。它在斐济文化中也扮演着重要的角色。按照当地的习俗,访客需要获得批准才能进入村庄,他们要表达善意,带着一束卡瓦根当作"塞乌塞乌"(sevusevu,一种敬意)。我想这种方式与西方客人带一瓶酒到东道主家的意义类似。

In truth, in deeply ritualized Fijian society, sevusevu sets up a more complex relationship between the host and the hosted. When a visitor has their sevusevu accepted, they become part of the larger village family. By receiving something back – usually sharing in grog (the kava root mixed with water) – the visitor acknowledges this obligation. In some villages, the ancient ritual has died out, while in others it’s not much more than a money-making tourism activity. Our best chance for experiencing an authentic ceremony, we were told, was to visit the small, isolated villages in Fiji’s outer islands.

事实上,斐济社会非常注重仪式,"塞乌塞乌"使客人与主人之间建起的关系更复杂。如果访客的"塞乌塞乌"被接受,他们就成为了村庄大家庭的一份子。而访客则通过接受回礼确认这份责任,回礼通常是烈酒(卡瓦根和水的混合物)。在一些村庄,古老的仪式已渐渐消亡,而在另一些地方,也仅仅是作为创造营收的旅游活动而已。有人告诉我们,要体验最正宗的仪式,得去斐济外岛与世隔绝的小村庄。

“Do you think this is a sevusevu village?” my daughter Maia asked as we looked at the thatch and brick houses of Nabouwala village on the island of Vanua Levu. The previous two villages we’d stopped in hadn’t been, but once again we dressed in our sulas and set off for shore with our ungainly bouquet of kava to avoid any potential disrespect.

"你觉得这个村庄有塞乌塞乌的传统吗?"我女儿迈亚看着瓦努阿岛(Vanua Levu)上纳布瓦剌村(Nabouwala)用茅草和砖块建设的房子问道。我们之前停留的两个村庄都没有这样的风俗,但是我们还是再次穿上了苏拉斯并带着我们杂乱的卡瓦束前往海岸,以避免任何不敬的行为。

In Nabouwala, we asked some children for the turaga-ni-koro, or chief, and they escorted us past small homes and tidy gardens to the ubiquitous rugby match, where they presented us to Waisea, the headman. Waisea told us the chief – an elderly woman of 97 – would indeed receive our sevusevu. He tutored us on the custom’s protocol, but after trying to teach my husband Evan the complex string of Fijian, we decided that Waisea should speak on our behalf.

在纳布瓦剌,我们向几个小孩打听"图拉加-尼-科罗"(turaga-ni-koro),也就是首领,他们带着我们走过几处小房子和花园,到了一个当地流行的橄榄球比赛场,然后向我们引荐了首领韦西亚(Waisea)。韦西亚告诉我们他们的酋长,一位97岁高龄的老妇,将接受我们的"塞乌塞乌"。他给我们介绍了风俗习惯,但是在尝试教我丈夫埃文(Evan)学习斐济复杂的字符后,我们还是决定由韦西亚来代表我们进行发言。

So Waisea called out the traditional greeting (instead of knocking) outside the chief’s thatched bure, or meeting house, and had us slip off our shoes, hats and sunglasses. We entered the room and were seated on a woven grass mat in front of a tiny, smiling woman with a halo of white hair.

因此韦西亚在酋长的茅草屋外(也就是会议室)召集了传统的欢迎仪式(不是敲锣打鼓),并让我们脱掉鞋子、帽子,摘掉太阳镜。我们走进房间,坐在一张编制的草席上,面前是一位满头银发,面带微笑的老妪。

Andisolmbe is one of the few female chiefs in Fiji. And despite her age, she seemed delighted by our visit. Waisea explained her lineage and the extent of her territory, introduced us to her great granddaughters and then repeated the story of who we were and how we’d reached the village. After clapping (mostly) on cue, Waisea told us our kava was accepted by the village and we were now brothers and sisters and Maia was a daughter.

安迪索姆比(Andisolmbe)是斐济仅有的几位女性酋长之一。虽然已近百岁高龄,但是她对我们的来访感到很开心。韦西亚介绍了她的家世和领土范围,把我们介绍给她的曾孙女,然后又再次讲述了我们的身份和前往这里的方式。正在那时掌声响起(大多数情况),之后,韦西亚说我们的卡瓦被村庄接受了,因此我们成了兄妹关系,而迈亚的辈分则是女儿。

After taking a few photos with our new relatives, we were invited to return that evening to drink some of the kava and complete the ceremony. As we walked back to the bure later that day, we could hear the root being pounded to a powder in an oversized mortar and pestle. After being mixed with water and strained through cloth, I accepted my beginner’s ‘low-tide’ sized coconut husk bowl. I was prepared for the grog to taste like dishwater. But to me, the room-temperature drink tasted like spicy yerba mate, a combination of earthy and grassy flavours with a hint of bitter and the bite of pepper.

在和我们刚认的亲戚拍照之后,他们邀请我们当天晚上返回村庄饮用卡瓦酒并完成整个仪式。在我们返回小屋的时候,可以听到卡瓦根在巨大的研钵与研杵中被捣碎的声音。在与水混合并经过纱布过滤后,我接到我作为新来者接受的椰子皮碗。我准备好饮下味道如同洗碗水一样的烈酒。但是对我而言,这种常温饮料的味道就如同辛辣的巴拉圭茶,混合着泥土和草的气味,还有一丝苦涩,以及胡椒的刺激。

In this, the most formal of the ceremonies we attended, I clapped once and said the all-purpose word bula when accepting my bowl. After finishing it, I returned the bowl with a vinaka, or thanks, before clapping three more times. I was so caught up in the details of the ritual that I missed the significance of being accepted as part of the fabric of a village. It wasn’t until our aquatic wandering took us to Gunu, a village of 350 on Naviti Island in Fiji’s Yasawas archipelago, that the tradition’s deeper meaning took hold.

在这个我们所参加过的最正式的仪式上,我一接到碗便鼓掌,然后说着通用词布拉。在仪式完成后,我把碗归还,并表示感谢,随后又三次鼓掌。我如此痴迷于仪式的细节,以至于忽略了被村庄组织接纳的重要性。直到我们乘船游览到斐济萨瓦群岛纳维提岛上拥有350人的村庄时,这一传统的深刻意义才被领悟。

Arriving on the island, local children directed us to give our sevusevu to Bill, one of the village’s headmen. Bill took our kava without fanfare or ritual, but still made it clear our sevusevu was accepted and we were welcome. Then he sent us with his young daughter on a tour of the village. She was told to introduce us to everyone as family. A day later, we found ourselves sitting with sisters Lewa and Vesi, trying to be helpful as they showed us how they wove grass voivoi mats and bracelets for tourists from dried pandanus leaves. Then they gave us the bracelets and offered us a mat.

在到达岛上之后,当地的小孩带领我们把"塞乌塞乌"交给村子的一位首领比尔。比尔接受了我们的卡瓦,但是并没有吹号角,也没有举行任何仪式,不过他告诉我们接受我们的"塞乌塞乌"并且欢迎我们的到来。然后让他的女儿带领我们在村里游览。并且叮嘱她要把我们作为家人介绍给每个人。一天之后,我们和勒瓦、维西姐妹俩坐在一起,学习他们用晒干的露兜树的叶子编制草席和手链的技艺。后来她们把手链和草席都作为礼物送给了我们。

Life in a Fijian subsistence village like this one relies on everyone doing their part. We quickly realised the constant small exchanges of favours and gifts ensure everyone is interconnected and no-one goes without. Already, we had discovered that having a camera and the ability to print photos was a precious commodity; we took formal pictures for government documents and family photos for far-away relatives.

像斐济这些小村庄的生活需要每个人都各司其职。我们很快发现不断交换小礼物能确保大家互相联系,没有谁也不行。而且,我们还发现拥有相机和洗照片的技能非常珍贵;我们为政府文件拍摄了正式的照片,并为遥远的亲戚准备了家庭照片。

One afternoon we visited the school, and after touring each of the classes and learning about the school day, we presented the head teacher with money and much-needed school supplies. The next evening, the village reciprocated by throwing us a special, celebratory meal called a lovo.

一天下午我们探访了学校,在参观了每间教室和课堂之后,我们为校长提供了资助和他们急需的学习用品。第二天晚上,作为回报,村子里用名为"罗莱"(lovo)的特殊庆祝大餐款待我们。

When we arrived at the bure, the men were digging at an earthen oven where heated rocks had been placed earlier in the day. When the leaves were pulled off and the smoky steam cleared, the women and children gathered around to collect bundles of chicken, cassava, white yam and stuffed pumpkin from the pit.

我们到达小屋后,男人们正在一个土质烤箱处挖掘,那里已经提前放好了灼热的石头。当拨开叶子,清理烟雾后,妇女和儿童聚在周围开始从坑洞里把鸡肉、木薯、白薯蓣和夹馅南瓜取出来。

Draping salusalus (leis) around our necks, Lewa and Vesi seated us on the voivoi mat around a long, laden tablecloth. After explaining the food – the fish caught by that uncle, the breadfruit cooked by that aunt, the pulusami (a dish made from taro leaves and coconut cream) by that sister – Lewa scolded us into filling our plates. As we ate, we complimented the cooks, talked and joked and ate some more.

把"萨鲁萨鲁"(花环)戴到我们的脖子上,勒瓦和维西让我们围着一个摆满食物的长长的桌布坐在草席上。在介绍完食物——这位叔叔捕到的鱼,那位婶婶制作的面包果,那位姐姐烹饪的"普鲁萨米"(一种用芋头叶子和椰浆制作的菜肴)——勒瓦用食物把我们的盘子填的满满当当。我们一边享用美食,一边夸赞厨艺,谈天说地,酒足饭饱。

The meal reminded us of all the subtle ways the village works as a collective. Individually, no single family could have produced the feast. But as a community there was enough for everyone.

这顿大餐使我们想起了这个村子集体工作的各种巧妙方式。从个体角度来看,没有哪一家能单独做出这样一顿大餐。但是作为一个社区,每个人都能享用到足够的食物。

Gunu may have stayed a pretty memory, kept bright by photos and the small gifts of shells and bracelets we’d collected. But thanks to the internet, we stayed in touch with Lewa through social media. She sent us messages about daily life, and occasionally we got a picture when a sister, brother or cousin graduated from high school, married or had children – or when their rugby team did especially well. Then a few years later, we received a troubling message: Gunu village had taken a direct hit from Cyclone Winston. Lewa’s home was gone, the crops were destroyed and the people were going without basic food and medical supplies.

古努本可能已成为一段美好的记忆,鲜艳明亮的照片以及作为小礼物收到的贝壳和手链。但是得益于互联网的存在,我们通过社交媒体一直和勒瓦保持着联系。她与我们分享日常生活的消息,有时还会给我们看姐妹、兄弟或表亲高中毕业、结婚或生孩子的照片——或者是他们的橄榄球队表现特别出色的时刻。几年后,我们得到了一个令人不安的消息:古努村遭到了气旋温斯顿(Cyclone Winston)的直接打击。勒瓦的家被毁了,庄稼颗粒无收,人们缺乏基本的食物和医疗用品。

Lewa didn’t ask us for help, but the memory of that sevusevu and its meaning came back. We offered to wire funds so she could buy emergency supplies.

勒瓦并没有寻求我们的帮助,但是"塞乌塞乌"的记忆和它的意义唤起我们。我们给她汇了款,让她能购买应急用品。

We had asked for permission to enter Gunu village, and in doing so we got the opportunity to become part of the lives of a group of villagers on a small island that was now halfway around the world. In return, to honour our part of the sevusevu tradition, we took the opportunity to fulfil our obligation to them, although our contribution was just a small part of what was needed (their collective perseverance did the rest).

我们申请准许进入古努村,这样我们就有机会成为一座遥远小岛上一群村庄的一份子。作为回报,并出于对"塞乌塞乌"传统的尊重,我们履行了我们的义务,尽管我们的援助只是杯水车薪(他们靠着集体毅力战胜了困难)。

A few months after Cyclone Winston, another unexpected message came from Lewa. However, this one was a happy one: she was having a baby. She and her mother had decided that her son should be named after family, and she asked if she could name him after us. Though he wouldn’t sport a traditional Fijian name, little Ceilidh would carry the name of our boat, deepening the ties between us – a detail we’d never planned for when we set off to explore Fiji, but one we’ll cherish forever.

气旋温斯顿几个月后,勒瓦告诉了我们另一个意想不到的消息。但是,这一次是好消息:她的孩子出生了。她和母亲决定以家人的名字为孩子命名,并且询问是否可以用我们的名字取名。虽然我们并不是要对传统的斐济名字不敬,但是小凯利会带着我们的船的名字,进一步加深我们之间的联系——这是在我们开始探索斐济时从未预料到的,但也是我们将永远珍藏的。

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